Notes: linking the note and the text

note footnote anchor linking and pointing endnotes
target sic corr note corresp anchored target ref hyperDiv

Notes (including footnotes, endnotes, and marginal notes) should be linked to their anchor point using a bi-directional link which explicitly identifies both the anchor point and the note.

This entry deals with the identification and positioning of the anchor point for notes. There are four main components to this encoding: tagging the anchor point, tagging the anchor mark, tagging the noted phrase if one appears in the note, and creating the link between note and anchor point.

Tagging the anchor point

The anchor point is the element to which the note points. This may be an element with a function independent of the existence of the note (such as a persName, a quote or a term, or even a div) or it may be an element placed there for the sole purpose of anchoring the note (such as anchor or seg). Whatever element is used, it must have both an id value (to which the note points with its target attribute) and a corresp value (which points to the id of the note element). In this way the note and its anchor each point to each other.

We only treat a word or phrase as the anchor point if its extent is clear: by renditional distinction such as italics or quotation marks, by repetition of the word/phrase in the text of the note, or in some cases by its obviousness (for instance, a personal name which is clearly the subject of the note). If the quoted phrase in the note is briefer than the renditionally distinct phrase in the main text, we need to use judgment to determine whether or not the entire renditionally distinct phrase should be treated as the element to which the note points. There may be cases where the note abbreviates the phrase for convenience, but where the entire phrase is still the subject of the note; there may also be cases where the renditionally distinct phrase is renditionally distinct for an unrelated reason (for instance, because it is in a foreign language) and only part of it is really the subject of the note.

If there is a renditionally distinct word/phrase and you can identify an appropriate element to use (quote, term, soCalled, etc.), use that element, and use its corresp attribute to point to the note in the hyperDiv.

If there is a renditionally distinct word/phrase but you can’t identify an appropriate element to use, then tag the word/phrase with seg and use its corresp attribute to point to the note in the hyperDiv.

If there is no renditionally distinct word/phrase, tag the point where the note is anchored with anchor and use its corresp attribute to point to the note in the hyperDiv.

For marginal notes: if there’s no indication of where the note is anchored (no anchor symbol, no distinct word), we recommend placing the anchor at the beginning of the line that is level with the top of the marginal note.

For footnotes or endnotes: if there’s no precise indication of where the note is anchored, but there is a line number mentioned in the note, place the anchor at the beginning of the line indicated by the line number. If there is no line number either, and no other way of determining where the note is anchored, simply leave the note unanchored, or attach it to the smallest enclosing element (for instance, the p or div element) that can be determined to be relevant.

For notes (foot or end) which have an erroneous anchor (for instance, the note says line 7 and it’s actually line 8), we recommend encoding the text as it appears, and including a note in the notesStmt describing the error. For more information see the entry on the notesStmt.

Tagging the anchor mark

The anchor mark is the symbol (such as a number, asterisk or dagger) that marks the place in the text to which the note refers. If there is an anchor mark in the text, the value of the anchored attribute on the note element should be yes. This is the default value.

We recommend encoding the anchor mark using the pre or post keywords on the rend attribute of whatever element is being used to mark the anchor point. Thus if a noted word has an asterisk immediately following it, the anchor mark should be encoded as rend="post(*)" on the element used to tag the word, or on the anchor element if there is no other element present. For anchor marks consisting of superscripted numbers, the number is encoded using an entity reference (e.g. &sup-2;) since the normal treatment of superscription using the rend attribute is impossible.

If the anchor mark is separated from the word it marks by a piece of punctuation (e.g. Homer,*), we recommend ignoring the relative positions of anchor mark and punctuation, and encoding as if the anchor mark followed the word directly:

<persName id="anchor001" corresp="note001" rend="post(*)">Homer</persName>,

However, in projects where the exact order is crucial, it may be impossible to retain both the renditional encoding of the anchor mark and the linkage between the note and the scope of the noted phrase. Of the two, the latter is a much more important part of the encoding, since it supports both navigation and the ability to analyse note references. The following encoding sacrifices the flexibility of the renditional encoding:

<persName id="anchor001" corresp="note001">Homer</persName>,*

An alternative encoding that preserves the flexibility, but requires more overhead:

<persName id="anchor001" corresp="note001">Homer</persName>,<anchor rend="post(*)"/>

A final option that misrepresents the contents of the persName (by including the comma):

<persName id="anchor001" corresp="note001" rend="post(*)">Homer,</persName>

Tagging the noted phrase as it appears in the note

The noted phrase is a recapitulation (often inexact) of the section of text to which the note applies. This happens most frequently in the case of quotations, where the content of the note may be a bibliographic reference, but it may also occur where the note explains or comments upon the noted phrase. Notes also may recapitulate the noted word or phrase in lieu of providing an anchor mark or line number to indicate what the note refers to.

We suggest encoding the noted phrase as it occurs in the text of the note using the quote element, regardless of whether the phrase corresponds exactly to its counterpart in the body of the text. Within the quote element, encode the quotation just as if it were a quotation appearing anywhere else in the text.

Discrepancies between the noted phrase in the note and its counterpart in the text should be encoded using sic, without corr, on the text in the note. The rationale is thus to treat the note version as a derived version and the version in the text as the authoritative version, regardless of which one is actually correct. The use of sic in this case is intended to indicate that the text is accurately transcribed; the omission of corr indicates that you are agnostic about which version is correct. If you are in a position to verify the correctness of the quote and want to provide a corrected reading, you can use corr to do so.

Typographical errors occuring within the noted phrase in the note are encoded just as if they appeared anywhere else: encode them with sic and corr, even if they reproduce errors which occur in the main body of the text. However (as indicated above), you may prefer not to encode discrepancies between the noted version and the text version as typographical errors to be corrected, but rather as differences to be noted.

If the extent of the noted phrase does not match the position of the anchor mark, and if the content of the note suggests that the anchor mark is not simply misplaced, the note should be linked to an anchor element at the position of the anchor mark, rather than to the phrase in the text. If the content of the note suggests that the anchor mark is misplaced, the note should be linked to the phrase in the text and the anchor mark should be treated as a typographical error and encoded as #PCDATA within a sic element.

Linking the note to the anchor

The note and anchor point are linked bi-directionally using:

  • an id attribute on both the note element and on the element which encloses the noted word or phrase, or the anchor element if that was used. To make the id values easier to administer and maintain, the id value for the note should have a standard prefix with a serial number, in the form n001, n002, etc., and the id value for the anchor or anchoring element should be in the form a001, a002, etc. The numbering of the anchor should match the numbering of the note; this makes it much easier to proofread and troubleshoot the encoding.
  • a target attribute on note which points to the id of the element that serves as the anchor point. If the note points to more than one element, the target attribute may contain more than one value; multiple values should be separated by a space: target="a001 a002".
  • a corresp attribute on the element that serves as the anchor point, which points to the id of the corresponding note element.

In P5, the encoding is essentially the same, but the id attribute is replaced by the xml:id attribute, and its value is prefixed by a #:

<anchor xml:id="a001" corresp="#n001"/>

<note xml:id="n001" target="#a001">Text of the note.</note>


Example 1.

A note linked to a persName:

<p>It remained to the glorious <persName id="a001" corresp="n001" rend="post(*)">Cromwell</persName> to tame this tiger...</p>
<note id="n001" target="a001"><p>The famed <persName>Oliver Cromwell</persName>, Lord Protector...</p></note>

Example 2.

A note linked to an anchor:

<p>Before she went in to dinner, she sat in her closet and wrote several letters,<anchor rend="pre(*)" id="a001" corresp="n001"> thanking those who had supported her in her hour of distress.</p>
<note id="n001" target="a001"><p>It is at this point, we may surmise, that the idea of the petition first came to her mind...</p></note>

Example 3.

A note linked to a passage from the text which is unmarked except by the quoted phrase in the note:

<lg><l>The flowers in the field are gay</l>
<l>And <seg id="a001" corresp="n001">bloom as freely</seg> as they may.</l></lg>
<note id="n001" target="a001"><ref>Line 2, <quote rend="slant(italic)">bloom as freely</quote>:</ref> <p rend="break(no)">This charming passage echoes the words of the Derbyshire poet Peckworth...</p></note>

Example 4.

A note linked to a passage from the text which is renditionally distinct and differs in extent from the quoted phrase in the note:

<p>How she endured those long days, how she <seg rend="slant(italic)" id="a001" corresp="n001">steeled her soul to sternness</seg>, is known only to herself...</p>
<note id="n001" target="a001"><ref><quote>steeled her soul</quote></ref> <p>It may be objected, that such an image is unbecoming a lady whose delicacy can scarcely be doubted...</p></note>

Example 5.

A note with punctuation intervening between the noted phrase and the anchor mark

<p>....the works of <persName>Homer</persName>