image emblem decoration
figDesc graphic figure

Encoding of figures and illustrations using figure; handling of text within figures; discussion of the WWP’s changes to the content model of figure

Graphic features of the page which are representational (for instance, emblems, heraldry, portraits, illustrations, and the like) should be encoded using figure. In general, we feel it is unnecessary to encode non-representational ornamentation (such as page borders, section markers, decorative ruled lines, etc.) in this way, since figure provides more encoding overhead than is necessary to capture such features. See ornaments for our recommendation on encoding non-representational ornamentation.

Within figure, we strongly recommend using figDesc to capture a brief description of the figure; this serves the same purpose as the alt attribute in HTML, and is important to provide accessibility to the visually handicapped, as well as to provide keyword searching on images.

If you are capturing a digital image of every page, then there may be no need to provide a link to a specific image file representing the figure. However, if you are only capturing digital images of things like illustrations, the figure element should include a link to the corresponding image. In unmodified TEI, this is done using the entity attribute on figure, which points to an entity which in turn points to the image file (see example 1). A simpler approach is now in common use, in which a url attribute is added to the figure element, allowing you to point directly to a specific file location (see example 2). This modification is included in the DTD extensions that accompany this Guide.

Illustrations are often accompanied by text which is actually part of the figure itself, not simply part of the running prose that surrounds it. This text may take the form of a caption or heading, or it may be a short passage of prose or poetry either at the top or bottom of the image. Text may also appear within the image’s graphic content: for instance, a speech bubble, sign, banner, or inscription on something depicted in the image (such as a building, a gravestone, a piece of clothing, a book). The DTD extensions that accompany this Guide allow for slightly more flexibility in encoding this text, to provide for all of the different cases that appear in early modern printed books, as follows:


Example 1:

     <figDesc>An engraved portrait of Elizabeth I carrying 
     an olive branch, with a map of the Americas in the background, 
     and the words <quote>Honi soit qui mal y pense</quote> 
     embroidered onto her sleeve.</figdesc>
     <text><body><p>Honi soit qui mal y pense</p></body></text>
     <p>Our Gratious Queene, in the 22 yeere of her rayne</p>
Note that within <gi>text</gi>, only <gi>body</gi> and <gi>p</gi> 
are required (no <gi>div</gi> necessary). 

Example 2:

<div><p>A noted Entomologist, who says he combed the nether 
   regions of his Garden in search of the Wooly Centipede, 
   at last concluded that this fugitive Insect spawns only 
   in the Winter, with a Grub in the following form: 
<figure><head>The Grub of the Wooly Centipede</head>
     <figDesc>A woodcut of a centipede larva curled up 
     on a leaf</figDesc>
     <p rend="slant(italic)">Centipedula Lanifera</p>
Its legs do not develop until the summer, when it assumes 
its familiar shape. </p></div>