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Acknowledgments

The editors, Sandra H. Petrulionis and Noelle Baker, would like to acknowledge the support of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Fund, the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association, Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, Harvard University’s Houghton Library, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this edition do not necessarily reflect those of the NEH.

HM25b GTF2,S13 BP1 1806-06~-16 handwriting 806  There was a total eclipse [of the sun to]day handwritingrd with the scene, I was describing the sub-no handwriting gloom of which inveloped the scenery when the first moments where were approaching— I flew to the woods to get beyond the din of human tongues and be fore I arrived to the most sequestered spot the sun im-no merged— Alass I never so deeply regreted a loss—for never surely there did the sublime ever in perception so fully appear. The appearance was unexpected—so exquisiite a light I cannot describe—the winds were hushed as if in awe—the birds screamed—the stars glowed—with what rapt devotion did I view my Ma-nokers hand— Oh how forgotten are the vanitis & sorows of life at grand appearances! How easy death at clear veiws of Gods works.! I sunk into life and walked & lost the afternoon I remember a similar eclipse 25 years agone I then felt stupid the scene was lurid & gloomy.

1806-06~-1717. Eve. Not easily forgotten—read scrip. scripture  Thom. Spring & half Summer—lives of tow two courtesans, of Demosthenes. baked walked repeatedly into woods— Mr & Mrs F. tea’d here! Slept twice—all these with other avo.s avocations and the day has been the picture of ennui. God most mercifull forgive and pity me!

1806-06~-1818. Incommunion with trees, with streams and stars and suns, man finds his own glory ins kribed on every flower and sparkling in every beam handwriting the skies I read my future destiny, and fhandwriting handwritinges and sorrows w’h which hedge up handwriting HM25 GTF2,S13continued BP2 principali ties and power s at extended handwriting and her God! But there are grander emotions handwriting moral world of man—those which will not de handwriting the blood nor rest in the grave—it is those exercises of obedience w’h which unite the soul to the attributes of the first Cause—that awfull respect for his will w’h which gives life to the obscurest deed— w’h which abides by the soul in the moments of complete destitution, and supports the love, the practice of virtue without influence or power! Ah for the witchery of fancy I have this very morning forgone this bliss of blessedness this last sure stay of existence—this stamina of glory! It does appear that there is so much remaining of the image of God (whose nature, I conceive, the sole origin of morality) on the immortal essence of man that when the convic-notion of moral agency attended with active virtue, is strongly felt, the soul is happy more perfectly, than at any other sentimet independent of future rewards; supposing no violent obstruction. But I find a surer token evidence of alliance to God in that zeal to do his will, separate from the reward of any kind. When I contemplate the high ranks of celestial spirits & the goal to w’h which I am tending with my contemporaries, it is not distinction I pant for. My God I love thee handwriting handwritinge thy will—a calm spectator of thy ways and handwriting handwriting be blest in liberty—at the lowliest handwriting HM11b GTF2,S1 BP3 handwriting time—holy—

1806-07~-1616 If the exercises of Devotion did not remain lively—the soul could ask nothing of God But while clogged with a putrid body it seeks the supports adapted to the senses—while active duties must take the place of contemplative and tranquil emotions (the purest & sublimest) it seem du-noty to seek those advantages w’h which will most readily develop the powers of the mind and the virtues of the heart—if desired—how sweet to bear his mild yoke to rejoice in felicity to w’h which we are not accessi- noble to behold God carrying on the affairs of the un noiverse without the mimickery of our help

1806-07~-1717 I am getting my clothes ready for sickness—and conclude to have advice this eve. I ask not to be rid of dis-noease.— Instead of it health may be my lot—joy & prosperity—but when we contemplate God—the grave the brightest scene are equally indiffer noent. How much more so will the style of life appear when actually in the immortal world. post()“Whilst all things are in motion & fluctuate on the earth; whilst states & empires pass away with incredible swiftness, & the human race vainly employed in the external view of these things, are also drawn in by the same torrent, almost without percvng perceiving it, there passes in secret an order & disposition of things un noknown & invisible, w’h which , however, determine our fate to all eternity. The duration of ages has no other end than the formation of the bodies of the elect w’h which augments, & tends daily to perfection. When it shall receive its final accomplishment by the death of the last elect handwriting HM11 GTF2,S1continued BP4 this paragraph incites the grandest emotions we can feel. If there be an infinite first Cause, as good as great, the perfection of his virtuous creatures must have formed a part of his plan & the principle of his moral govt government from eternity And the forgoing fact be indisputable. Yes, this little speck of nature we live on, then seems but a beautifull minature painting from w’h which we wd would gladly turn our eyes to the vast Original of beauty, & explore scenes where the elect of all ages & nations inhabit perfect righteousness.

1806-07~-1717 One hour in the morning and I envied not the blest. Then handwriting went to see that agreeble woman & appeared worldly tho’ though I did not feel so—alass! The more comprehensive the mind & pious the affections the more wholly confident in God. Conversant about Him & distinctions of time place & emoloment emolument die away here & for hereafter.

1806-07~-1818 If animal spirits w’h which are the effect of health gene- noate worldly mindedness—if they belong to earth—if they are of a gross not ethereal nature oh let me depart—the feeblest spirits if they comprehend but one duty are preferable to these—this day of quiet of hilarity I abhoor it! Mercifull God cut short my time—fill it up, crowd in what Thou wouldst have me do handwriting HM12b GTF2,S2 BP5 peculiar province must commence in the intell no ectual world. It is to imajanation that faculty of the mind w’h which seems to unite the feelings of the heart to the exertions of intellect that are we handwriting ver ace vie vee we the softd softened tints of past misfortune and the liveliness of future hopes—in fine it is the medium of every joy and harmonises all the soul. As long as idenity exists so long the perog-noative of a happy imajan imagination will remain: the pecu noliar gifts, the indefinable combinations of genius will never be the portion of vulgar souls (it seems) even in ages of blessedness! They may grow expatiate and triumph in the devolving wonders of a God, but by analogy of all human education they will not acquire gifts different from the stamina—the constituent principles w’h which compose the soul.— the Soul what is it? whatever it be, it’s stamp is given—it’s features are indelibly stamped for eternity at it’s formation—education forms—marrs—or perfects them—and supernal influence directs & sanctifys them. We antiscipate new powers in eternity—true, but they will be in unison perhaps to those we exercise now—nay, the germ—the embreyo of every principle must lie within usnew objects incite new ideas  handwriting handwriting HM12 GTF2,S2continued BP6 —in similar manner the powers may be dead as long as it exists— How differently one and the same object strike tow two minds; they who have happy powers of perception can tell. Will the covhandwriting ous, the frostn bound soul, ever perceive objects with the same rapture that another does? Oh how inestimable are the hopes w’h which those (I sd should think) would taste who possess the gifts of the mind. Eternity must forever charm their eyes, their ears, their hearts; and the path that leads them thither be itself sweetened. With what ever living zeal sd should they cherish the distinction w’h which God has eternally conferred on them—to pre nopare for a climate congenial to love & thought —to lighten the darkness of others and give to the cold some taste of joy.

1806-07~-1919 sab. sabbath morn. The collection of psalms resembles the garden of Eden in its variety richness & magnificence. The citizen of the immortal Eden wanders from one luxuriant scene to another and loose lose himself in its beau- noties. That man retains some natural affection for his divine Parent is manifest from the delight he feels from the harmony of his works and the sense of His perfections. That grace has sanctified handwriting is evident when the discovery handwriting HM13b GTF2,S3 BP7 handwritingn and immensity give him more delight than any other sentiment.

Night Never a sab sabbath more dexpected expected was intending to avoid those any smalier smaller   irrgs irregularities   w’h which I have committed. I did. I never remember so much continual penance— The success makes me hope for a nother sab. sabbath This eve. has been wandering & guilty—alas not one whole day to God while in the holy.

1806-07~-2121. When suffering under the weakness of my heart I cannot whol noly complain— I respect the susceptiblity—given by God and a germ of future delight. How singular the inci-nodent—so wished—so illy prepared for it. Weakness the whole. Mr Emerson & F. after that came & bro’t brought me disagreeable news from N—t. I must go & resign the rapture of devo. devotion the sight of the charms of nature & devote my time to care to sickness & labor. No mat noter—it will not retard my glory in the skies a moment. At view of the heavens—what associations of earth and its finel forms of fancy love & friend- noship—of the martyrs to passion—& of to reason— of worlds of men who are gone—of the scenes w’h which they inhabit an92.1436align(center)— The spirit of Plato to unfold What worlds &c — Every thing seems gone before and the earth a poor desolate place. Yes, these gifts of fancy love & friendship are dear tho’ though forever famished here—and here handwritingt be indulged without selfishness handwriting handwriting HM13 GTF2,S3continued BP8 for I am not practioner practitioner nor theorist enough at pre- nosent to find myself one self denying virtue, or one wholly disinterested when surrounded by congenial objects of love & friendship. I might & hazard my life & health whenever their interest called—so does the feathered inhabitant of the air—an instinct prompts to efforts the most desprate for another’s self. Is this virtue? Virtue renders the little every day sacrifices w’h which we perform for those who are naterally obnoxious to our happiness even pleasant—but where is duty when we love?

1806-07~-2121 What contemptible trifles depriv us of the richest blessings— impat impatient of time—what dangers attend solitude that the incident of yesterday sd should beget so many sins, that is, vain tho’ts thoughts . What a day—lost as a saint—an immortal.

1806-07~-2222 Morn. Solitude must have it’s langors & diseases—else it wd would be too much of Heaven, & death wd would not be desirable. But at such times it is perhaps folly to ask for activity—and the develop-noment of embryo powers. In these cases I sd should meet with labours I sd should illy bear—with duties partially dis-nocharged—with temptations weakly resisted. To wish for human hap-nopiness is sublime—to feel uneasy at not aiding it, is insensitiate insentient handwriting to the handwriting

  handwriting e a s sd should said as a disgrace for a man handwritinge or die for himself yet he was handwritingrtunate. His Mother in the a tempel sealed to heanthenism heathenism sd said we can res- no train our tear for the sake of other, but events are with the God. I rejoice cure my ladybody in this sense before it handwriting worn with age

HM14b GTF2,S4 BP9

handwriting to retrieve former errors is weakness—the same causes will forever generate the same ef-nofects—to aim at an example is like giving sub no stance to a shadow—the safest ambition is that to be shine in scenes of immortality & reality. Obscurity humility and benevolence sd should employ the first & latest desirs desires of a xian christian . True dignity is there often and there only found and as the appt appointment of God not the resort of indolence sd should be gratefully receivd. How little of God and less of himself does he know who confines virtue & glory with to eclat—activity and learning.

1806-07~-2424 Sacred & prophane history wonder- nofully sullies all human glory. The greatest Saint Hero & Statesman is left to cast a shade on their brightest acquirments Amidst their height of noon Changeſt thy countenance & thy hand with no regard Of highest favors past From thee on them, or them to thee of service. Milton. What a love of solitude & sacred regard to the humble virtues sd should this induce! And a stronger ardor in every reflecting mind for a more perfect stage of existence. When sublimed with the sentiments & presence of God we exult in retirment but the laws of nature will not permit the continu no ance of these emotions—formed for trial labour handwritinge. Yesterday & today tedious because handwriting handwriting subject that handwriting HM14 GTF2,S4continued BP10 I am engaged in a pursuit new & important. God most mercifull smile for my Master’s sake.

1806-10~-2929. Too awe- nostruck & feeble to pursue the subject.

1806-10~-2525 came Home the reflections of my hilarity painfull.

1806-10~-2626. Went to see brother W. &c went to Capt D— got rid of dread full spirits

1806-10~-2727  sab. sabbath eve. Heard Mr May with great pleasure & impt import lost handwriting it & God only knows what else by folly & weakness. Yesterday Visited to advan notage of my spirits.

1806-10~-3131. An clipse eclipse , when this MMS. manuscript was begun—it has passed thus on in a mental eliepse eclipse . Yesterday I awoke recalling the passage of one joyfull who sd said  when he slept his heart waked. for the three past months most of my sleep has been with a heart awake to depression. It must be owing to my health, for God is my friend. x

1806~-11-11 No. November 11. Almighty God! Have mercy upon me! Let this painfull per noplexed memorable moment decide my soul.

1806-11~-1212 I went the 1806~-08-01 1t first of Au. August to Boston & from thence to N.P. to take Sarah’s place who had the care of sister F—’s family the care of so numerous a family with a sick infant passed of very easily. The 1806~-10-1010 of oct. october the dear & pro- no mising child died. It was a tender situation. It had be-no come wholly attached to me and formed a great part of my pleasures. It’s Mother returned to the funeral and behaved with much calmness. I came here to see ihandwriting might tarry there longer—returned thence for handwriting handwritings at the close of which, went to handwriting handwriting HM15b GTF2,S5 BP11 handwriting entance intance than for some years, entered more into society— thro’ through situation not choice—many interesting passages of life with the most interesting characters among which the Sawyers Hannah & M. they have played with my feelings—duped my sagacity—flattered my self esteem and exposed my weak side. I love & dislike approve & shun abhor them. M. Ann grew on my af- nofections. How fervently I pray God to bless them! A. Brom nofield disappointed at first, pleased & interested & gained my respect. I hope a blessing will attend the acquaintance D.A.W. became almost my sole companion, (from the interest I took in his seeing my friend, & the plea-nosure the success afforded me), in the hours of a silent house—in the case of my little charge in the social table he occupied my attention & shortened my labours. How thankfull that he did no more. To others he appeared to, but there was no harm in their suspion suspicion . On the whole devotion Decayed—ardor lost—levity gained—worldly intercourse induced common feelings—feelings— w’h which I abhor; tho’ though they rather touched than resided in my heart. Many many miscarriages in delicacy, integrity & firmness—from handwriting in gentleness with my family. In short I handwriting handwriting to retrace the beginnings of my handwriting handwriting HM15 GTF2,S5continued BP12 I was doing the family never entered my heart nor rendered me important for an instant. How much bet- noter I might & ought to have done in one case is most painfully certain. Its consequences I know not I committed them, and this poor, feverish, weak, distorted soul went into the hands of an high Priest touched with human misery—an Advocate, if any man sin!  I press to the throne of grace emboldened by his offices officer . And I think myself sincere when I say to Him, that I had rather have died than passed the three last months. Yet in those months I have prefered my devotion to every social pleasue and death has been my most pleasant theme & hope. Yet there have been pious resolutions broken before human in- nofluence & private passion. No friendship I made but I would instantly relinquish to be free from this awfull reflection. No pleasur, I wd would not exchange for anguish.

1806-11~-1313. Eve. What a frolick—is it from levity—not wholly I know—bereft of every human support—failed in some of the niciest points—how strangely made! I read some of Jones’ life & I never felt so intirely diminutive in point of knowledge & activity. Yet it was then I felt most grandly—at death. yes after death (& ten leigion of Angels can’t avert my death handwriting my death, there is perfect musick in the sound) I shall enter the wide, the boundless domain of the handwritingiliefe, truth & nature! I shall then handwriting nature of soul & body without thandwriting HM16b GTF2,S6 BP13 whole science of poetry in all its magic in-no fluence and trace it’s birth and progeny from one long age of bliss & praise to another. Com-no pared to moments of divine intuition like these to antisapate, thy researches, Oh departed Linguist, seem puerile & uninteresting! Since last eve. much queietness & ease Has all been done?! I know no omission but rising—no sacrifices—no labours—

1806-11~-1414. Disapt Disappointment again about M.S— & now with DAW. My Uncle & Aunt gone & every thing in prisn prison . But I had rather have these devout emotions than the whole world. Sir W. Jones prays that when he died he might go where “he sd should increase in knowlegde & awfull love.” What a noble petition! But sd should I not enter immediately on such a state— sd should my soul mingle with the dust of the earth & slumber away the long ages of time, I will praise God for death—the last convulsions of my soul shall bless him for every mode of existence.

1806-11~-1919. I have just returned from Boston where I went to see poor sick sister Hannah there I enjoyed the literary & social society of my brother & my book very much. This day was snowy & deeply clouded—how this Town appeared is not easi noly described— To judge by appearances a spectator might have supposed that the apparatus of death to the sorry worldling or gaudy flutterer would not have been less abhorred. At first sight I always shrink but oh how suddenly do I collect myself—how handwriting by do I tread on the storms & mists of life handwriting the warm rays of of my Ma handwriting HM16 GTF2,S6continued BP14 With what designs in my head & heart do I return? Oh Father of my spirit! I dare not resolve—I foresee how little I shall accom noplish—I shrink—imbecillity of body will soon arrest me— Yet I hope in God—a may be thy mercy will assist me in a wonderfull manner —this my dark disgracefull perieod (for I have sinned) may be the one when the hand of my Master may extricate me more happily than it did the drowning Apostle. To my improvement in virtue alone shall every ef-nofort be made. I went to B. on friday with sister F & Daniel—that day came DAW. & MS. & Rogers—an incident of the most mortifying kind took place—one which spoke a language per nohaps w’h which I should hear forever. No in the pur- nosuit of glory I’ll not heed it. It has died in my memory.

1806-11~-2020 Yes no pain but positive pleasur. Studiied a little the holy scriptures read the substance of tow two   ser. sermons 25 pages of the last lay & & 25 6 of Burke on x  political “state of nature” cul- no ture &c.” Not one idle inactive moment. God most mercifull I praise thee!

1806-11~-2121 Morn I have read a sermon of Robinson’s. My soul yields herself with delight to faith & all it’s rapturous progeny!

Eve Positive happiness—& if not deluded, of the most rational handwriting read tow two of the best sermons I ever read. handwriting handwriting Tonight the sentiments of faith handwriting HM17b GTF2,S7 BP15 handwritingph in the hope of society, knowledge perfetion of every kind. My poverty of mind & all its brood of infirmities I glory in in prospect of my pas- nosions in Christ Jesus. At such times how eagerly my heart pants to confer bliss—how it visits every familiar form & embraces their prosperity.

1806-11~-24 24 A day of penetence & prayer for the past failures— How strongly im nopresed my mind with what a few hours before apd appeared trival trivial . How important (indispensably so) for a xian christian to set apart such seasons. Never a more sad one—never one endued endured so warmly in faith & hope. I blessed God I was out of punishment. Had I my deserts what shame & pain would involve me! Blessed & ador noable Jesus—thy attonement how rich how adapted to my condition. Blessed & adorable Saviour how mag nonificent thy gospel! Henceforth to honor & beautify it shall be my sole design—rather than disgrace it, oh pardon my sins and take me to thyself— rather than mar & weaken its influence let my body be sunk into the depthes of the sea or dispersed by the vultures of the desert.

1806-11~-2525. sab. sabbath  eve. noon. I worshiped as I wished in sadness, where I had not for 16 sabbaths The last sunday I fully recall—the prospect of N P. was dark, health &c &c feeble, but what an enthusi no asm of tranquil endurance & of fervid emotions of benevolence & pleasure endurance. The next at N.P. was more handwriting the objects the same, with which I felt handwriting God most mercifull could handwriting handwriting

HM17 GTF2,S7continued BP16

Eve. How gratefull is penitence what a change does it work by inducing new obedience—not a mohandwriting not an object but now calls for my exertions. Age & deformity shall have my tenderness. How dre- noamy pleasure the most fascinating, & honor at view of accountability—at aspiring like the eagle to mount —to pursue glory which will outlive the works of nature. The fear of the Lord that is wisdom—this I’ll follow—what fatness & mar no row will it give my faculties!

1806-11~-2525. He who dont value the bread blood of Christ and his offices never felt the stings of sin & the demands of the law. I thot thought I never was so fallen— With what rapture must the thief have received the promise of lifeand the infamous woman at the feet of Jesus her par- nodon! Ah blessed gospel—while thy pardons are applied to my guilty soul thy precepts shall be ingraved on my heart & influence my life! The xian christian is engaged in a career the most grand & important—his object is a character to be scrut-noinised before the universe—live coeval with elder spirits & in short it is connected with the glory of God!! I tremble!

1806-11~-2626. Were my character to be lost amid the numerous worlds w’h which , probably, inhab noit the universe, & undistinguished amid the infinite or-noders of intelligences, that no one wittness of it’s efforts should ever appear, yet the sole attributes of the Deity would be enough to induce the mhandwriting suffusion in the attributes of God handwriting HM18b GTF2,S8 BP17 handwriting they alone they only sanctify—they alone constitute evey every idea & obligation of virtue glory & happiness! They sanctify by their omni-no presence evey every virtuous affection, suffering & joy. An endless seclusion from nature & society with thy felt presence, oh source of all nature & beings, who art connected with every event & passeth thro’ through all existances, would render my self for ever dear & valueable! My connection with thee by creation (for thy pleasure) gives me inexpressible hope, and tho’ though lost by my depravity & forfeited by incessant (& oh by Holy seeking guilt) failures, yet restored and continued by the rich & magnificent offices of my high Priest, induces faith & confidence most merit which passeth knowliegde. God holy, infinite happy myself—unholy, minute feelble & often unhappy. And I find society in these contradictions—hope springs — God with all his perfections loves me with me with all my miseries— with an everlasting love with loving kindness truth he drawn me. “Before the xian christian religion had as it were humanised the idea of the Divinity, & bro’t brought it as it were somewhat nearer to us, there was little said about the love of God. The followers of Plato had somthing of it, & only somthing, the other writers of pagan antiquity, whether Poets or philosophers, nothing at all. And they who consider with what HM18 GTF2,S8continued BP18 infinite attention, by what a disregard of im noperishable object, thro’ through what long habits of piety & contemplation it is, any man is able to attain an intire love & devotion to the Deity, will easily perceive that it is not the first, the most striking natural, and the most striking effect which proceeds from that idea.” Burke  

1806-11~-2828 I went on wed nonesday to C—d with brother Daniel & returned today I fear I did not do right in going & regret it, tho’ though I enjoyed the ride—self possesion—social & tender affections—yet since I returned I have sinned.— I erred there. How excruciating.

1806-11~-2929 Awaked to penitnce how human & impenitent—what a restranst restraint on my self against pleasure. The 18 chap. chapter of Mat. Matthew how awfull it’s instructions.

1806-11~-3030  sab sabbath  morn. Glowing with life, with health & hope I praise God! But I fear I am lacking in that wisdom so grand so indispensable. Yet when I antisapate sickness & destitution, in all its forms of mortifying the poor affections I find myself invironed by the presence of the infinite God—& I rejoice— I rejoice that the very nessisity of His adorabled nature unites my existance to his omnipresence. Should his fires visi- notation of affliction be in anger for my departure from truth & of practical holiness would not my spirit handwriting handwriting HM19b GTmissing BP19 lyhandwriting hahandwriting phandwriting nehandwriting glhandwriting &handwriting th handwriting a mhandwriting hishandwriting to handwriting hehandwriting nahandwriting loshandwriting thhandwriting arhandwriting dinhandwriting likhandwriting uchandwriting HM19 GTmissing BP20 handwritingut handwritingts handwritinge handwritingger handwritingte HM20b GTF2,S9 BP21 handwriting without activity) lose their charms when we are sensible of the divine perfections—a fullness & handwriting as I have before said a silent wittness of his works & attributes and I should be forever happy. What handwriting rities of happiness has He already indowed me with! Never insufficient to the sweetest tranquility and unremitting exertions but when depraved by mingling in the views pursuits & passiins passions of others. I broke my engagments already or forgot them & wan-no dered in the bewitching paths of fancy. How alarming such disorder—sin it’s concommittant. I tremble for what I’ve lost, and for what I must do. Very clear ideas of this state of probation connected by all it’s deeds with future glory. Away with devout prayers—faith in a Mediator’s respon nosibility—delight at tho’t thought of death, & assurance of salviation because of the leading features of xianity christianity . Nothing short of standing complete & perfect —of imitating Jesus Christ in every trait of his imitable inimitable & sacred character shall hence noforth be my object. My wisdom & glory to feel superior to those pleasurs w’h which are innocent in ’emselves themselves & inchanting —not designed for my constitution—better for those who are colder, & less solitious solicitous for future advance. The greater they are the greater to forgo them. With ot th ose ere  I’ll pass the late injury & dare my chamber eternity is before me—and I may sensibly notice by handwriting tinsity of habit more than my cotemporaries expect: handwritingtever divine attributes belong to my Saviour, handwriting example for us, and the more grand handwriting handwriting his wonder handwriting HM20 GTF2,S9continued BP22 and the more zealously we sd should aspire to those same heights of perfection.

1806-12~-099 What a morn- noing of worship! Sweetest highest day— Lotts handwriting done & nothing suffered—but what was done —performed in unremitting obedience. What is truth I love God with all my heart and mind. One proof is that I when I contemplate the day light of an open & abundant entrance —when I feel the whole force of anxity to rise in the scale of moral excellence it is from motives of love, of fear of obedience to God rather than ambition— it is to be fully receivd by Him— conformity to his will that stimulates me. His will my delight, and while I see the world before, and contemplate happier myriads in Heaven than myself I press on to do my utmost to be found of Him in peace. His will gives me my tabel talent and I rejoice in it.

1806-12~-1010 Weak day—closed a painfull business—never, never more to resume it.— what has it not cost me? Perpetually convinced that I am privi noledged above others—but that I must not seek for any thing they injoy—what scenes of abstraction of angelic joy of peece of elevated pleasurs lie before me Once cut the ties of earth and an spiritual ixestance existence commences!

1806-12~-1111 Yes, and I viewd with delight the glimmering sun this dreary morning & said its light aid me to founder when do a work that would handwriting age & dying hours. Walked thhandwriting HM21b GTmissing BP23 p j h k  handwriting shandwriting (handwriting schandwriting cehandwriting enhandwriting tohandwriting shandwriting HM21 GTmissing BP24 handwritinge handwritinge handwritings HM22b GTF2,S10 BP25 handwriting ut I run—& fancy was victor—alass— handwriting member a colder storm—never a day of more ardor in handwriting nate devotion & literature. At eve in ironing fancy handwriting the intire guidance. Alass no more fear of God— pre()Horace said it was the last effort of philosophicaly to fortitude to contemplate the immense & glorious structer of the univese without without terror & amazement.” To feel this what would be the worth of existence how inlarged how sanc notified.

1806-12~-1313 Day of literary reading & good spirits. Eve the uncommon solemnity.

1806-12~-1414  sab. sabbath  eve. When I am rid of this cold putrid body I shall adore & worship as elder spirits do. A joyous day but not victorious.

1806-12~-1515 Visited P. Wait—little impression fom from reflecting on the variety of scenes, of sympathy friendship—&—vanity & errors passed in 18 months & little from the pros nopects of those to come. Said just the things I sd should not lost command of my fancy in going.

1806-12~-1616 Day of joy & reading. Can I hope too largely when He who made yon skies is the only Being I am connected with.

1806-12~-1717. A being possessed of senses which handwriting correspond to the objects of magnifiicent nature & supply me with involuntary rapture—with reason— with sensibility—with moral agency—the grand foundation of my connection with God and all per nohaps, that that imparts of future glory—with sym no pathy love & friendship & benevolence—with these my heart bounds forward with too frequent exult- no handwriting t—for all these gifts are idle mean handwriting handwriting HM22 GTF2,S10continued BP26 zeal in the cause of holiness. By joy I crhandwriting off my gourd—bitter let me feel it. Company handwriting the same I had a year since—was not so ele- novated—absolutely disgusted with the task and I was just animated to be decent. From such society what lurking monitions arise that I shall one be among better. I took care of my w ea or k folks with pleasure but there are some with bodies of ladies so disgusting to reason & refinement that to shrink is not antibenvo nolint antibenevolent . I hope God will forgive me if I pass at first penitence for the guilt of the day, in thanks giving for my being. Alone with Him—ever with Him—in every individual instant of my existence, whether alive or dead—here on earth, or in the uttermost parts of Heaven or in the abodes of Hell!

1806-12~-1818 Morn. What sig nonifies the paltry speculations of Philosophers & Divines about the immediate agency of the great God? Convinced only of his infinity—of his omnipresence and it matters not whether his material or mental laws are effected in their operation by his perpetual agency or by qualities indowed by Him ages agone! In either case it is abhandwriting His will and man’s accountability, tho’ though  handwriting handwritingtant handwriting HM23b GTmissing BP27 nhandwriting hhandwriting ohandwriting thandwriting HM23 GTmissing BP28 handwritinges handwriting d handwritings HM24b GTF2,S11 BP29 handwriting the weakness of handwriting and the sym no pathy of feeling

Eve—never a more exalted moment than that w’h which penned the above—one ten minuttes handwriting a stranger appeared—only a friend— Sweet memories best & noblest where did ye flee! Ah my heart is in tears—over the departed morning! Tokens of affection, esteem & friendship thro’ through the medium of handwritingcial hour—dearly purchased—I loathe ye—the immaculate manners of devotion sped in your inter no course. “God of our Fathers what is man”; never com-nopletely happy but at thy feet in adoration. Yet I erred not I was unusually fortunate yet I hate the morn & the day. I walked to rid myself of the impression. I wrote to MVS. I panted to give pleasur amid my own disgust of my own self.

1806-12~-1919 Morn. Whoever read Vir nogil’s account of the dead & doubted whether the soul of man is not impressed with religion by the hand of it’s Creator— —prepared for revelation. How sublime & pious the suggestion that the souls of the happy are united to the Deity.

Eve Night. Painful day thro’ through handwritingsptuo r s n . Past eve. out enjoyed it—erred in return most foolishly. Such is the l a o ws of my constitution that there is somthing of nessisity attached in my errors when I am social. Therefore it seems my wisdom to avoid relaxation however stupid my life. Let me be but innocent and let others shine & insphandwriting handwriting 

Noon. I cannot with every experiment keep handwritingtuhandwriting I am sad—be it more handwriting HM24 GTF2,S11continued BP30 the feet of Him to love—if no fortitude can coun noteract them meekness shall make them “peris handwriting an hour after & Rogers & R Hurd came—lost the day— How fervently I desire to see nothing inter- noesting here

1806-12~-2121 Erred morn. Zealous day at chh church & handwriting

1806-12~-2222 Never did nature inrapture me so. I pant as the hart to taste &c —to grow in knowledge & vir- notue. What delusion & madness to forfeit the smal-noest advantage in a future world whose laws are permanent; to the most splendid in this. Yet today the rovings of fancy have deluded my reason

1806-12~-2323. Never a morning more rapt & eve. The same drudgery of company a year agone. How misterious the power w’h which renovates as it were our ardor; our pati- noence our freshness of pleasurs. Never could a party of fanatics be more odious than this and never was a r ich eek er evening.

1806-12~-2525. Yesterday & today read dilligently —suffered from my eyes and close struggles with ig-nonorance & doubts. Receivd Received letters from Miss R H —d MVS and Mr. White. I can sleep quietly, tho’ though the tow two last give me pleasur. an2Oh Solitude thou nurse of sense Where the free soul looks down & pitys Kings. How abstracted & calm

1806-12~-2626. I don’t know what doubt means respecting the truths facts of related in the scriptures. It may be owing to ignorance of the r n eshandwriting handwritingirs of scepticism, tho’ though when conversant with handwriting only inlivened my faith handwriting HM26b GTF2,S12 BP31 handwritingill or rather their modes of existing are handwritingning. But the bible brings it’s own evidence handwriting meeting with internal evidence. Were man handwritingid of permanent pininiples principles —merely the creature of habit—or totally depraved there would be no such thing as internal evidence for the exitxtance existence of God and the justicee of his law. Were the bible a fiction, and the I not shaken in the faith of God and his moral govt government , I sd should be happy & pious; after hav no ing been formed on the plan of the gospel rules. I feel that while the first great Cause of beauty & holiness lives I shall be happy. Were physical nessisity (the meanest of all doctrines) true I should be happy if God were the agent. But God is a moral agent, and wonderfull as the gift, he hath given moral agency to men. Astonishing gift they who would loosen the obligations of moral accountability say, “would you take the merit of your salvation would bring God in debt”? Miserable, more miserable, most miserable deduction! God infinite and eternal, hath inhanced the gift of salvation by a contrivance of benevolence so grand that the handwritingbjects of it cannot believe it. Believing handwriting HM26 GTF2,S12continued BP32 glimsp glimpse of this light from Godhead. It is handwriting imperfect view any can have of this divine act of goverment. The holy cabinet is surrounded with clouds & darkness; and we must not go too near least lest we die. The ark which contained all the revealed law was covered with the wings of cherubims—these would incite rather than repress devotion—the law was known to all the purposes of obedience—the whole scheme of govt government and all it’s relations which extend thro’ through ages past & future cannot be comprehended by man. In view of the parts he must adore with the seraphim who cover their faces and with those Angels who cast their crowns at the divine feet

handwriting mediumof handwriting couny handwriting handwriting am the woes of the nessitiores with handwriting handwriting life giving hopes of future riches & joys! The Author concludes that he believes this world the Bedlam of the universe—if so a natural state unsustained by law by custom by “acts & facts those acts to aid” what theatre of extreme wret nochedness? It seems that to have a natural state in any way tolerable there sd should be an entire equal- noity in the intellect & corporeal community. And then the torpid, savage state exhibits its fairst fairest tints

The text at beginning of this line is irrecoverable; MME possibly wrote “1806” here to date this Almanack page.

The total eclipse of the sun on June 16, 1806 was widely predicted and studied by contemporary natural scientists. It was known as Tecumseh’s eclipse after Shawnee Indian Tenskwatawa, Tecumseh’s brother, accurately predicted its occurrence based on what he claimed were a series of visions. Eclipses for both April 12 and October 7 are recorded for 1782, the date twenty-four years earlier to which MME compares the present event. Espenak_Solar_Eclipses37 Solar Eclipses of Historical Interest Espenak Fred NASA Eclipse Web Site Espenak, aSolar Eclipses cit Edmunds_Tecumseh31 Tecumseh Edmunds R. David Boyer Paul S. Oxford Companion to United States History Edmunds, aTecumseh Oxford University Press Oxford 2004 cit

The total eclipse of the sun on June 16, 1806 was widely predicted and studied by contemporary natural scientists. It was known as Tecumseh’s eclipse after Shawnee Indian Tenskwatawa, Tecumseh’s brother, accurately predicted its occurrence based on what he claimed were a series of visions. Eclipses for both April 12 and October 7 are recorded for 1782, the date twenty-four years earlier to which MME compares the present event. Espenak_Solar_Eclipses37 Solar Eclipses of Historical Interest Espenak Fred NASA Eclipse Web Site Espenak, aSolar Eclipses cit Edmunds_Tecumseh31 Tecumseh Edmunds R. David Boyer Paul S. Oxford Companion to United States History Edmunds, aTecumseh Oxford University Press Oxford 2004 cit

In Plutarch’s Lives, she may have read about the Athenian orator and statesman Demosthenes and several influential courtesans, including Aspasia, Præcia, Flora, and Lamia.

At least one final line of text and possibly more is irrecoverable due to manuscript damage; the editors speculate that some portion of this Rollin quotation continued on these lines, based on MME’s references on the next page to Rollin’s "paragraph" and to "eternity," the last word of the full Rollin quotation.

MME quotes from Charles Rollin’s Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians, and Grecians : “Whilst all things are in motion, and fluctuate upon earth; whilst states and empires pass away with incredible rapidity, and the human race, vainly employed in the external view of these things, are also drawn in by the same torrent, almost without perceiving it; there passes in secret an order and disposition of things unknown and invisible, which, however, determine our fate to all eternity. The duration of ages has no other end than the formation of the bodies of the elect, which augments and tends daily towards perfection. When it shall receive its final accomplishment by the death of the last of the elect, ‘Then cometh the end when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority, and power.’ God grant that we may have all our share in that blessed kingdom, whose law is truth, whose king is love, and whose duration is eternity”  Rollin_Ancient_History121 Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians, and Grecians Rollin, mAncient History Rollin Charles Munroe & Francis Boston 1805 8 vols. cit pp8:197 .

This dated entry repeats the date of “17” from the preceding entry on the previous page.

MME paraphrases and loosely quotes several pages from George Turnbull’s Principles of Moral Philosophy: “And here we may observe, 1. That the imagination is a faculty of wonderful use in our frame” (1:54); “For how else is it that the remote one receives strength, but by the lively affecting manner in which imagination represents it, so as to render it as it were present, or, at least, tho’ absent, so efficacious, that no intervening self-denial, or suffering is sufficient to retard the mind from pursuing it, with the utmost intenseness?” (1:56); “What distinguishes our senses (i) from those of brutes, is, (as these philosophers have observed) that sense of beauty, order and harmony, with which they are united in our frame, by means of which they are not merely sensitive, but rather rational faculties” (1:66); “On the other hand, the man of judgment or discretion (for so discretion properly signifies) may be defined to be one who has a particular aptitude to discry differences of all kinds between objects, even the most hidden and remote from vulgar eyes. Now however these different aptitudes may be acquired, or in whatever respects they may be original, congenial or unacquired; it is manifest that they make a very real difference in character or genius. They have very different effects, and produce very different works; and they presuppose the law of association. The improvement of the one, certainly very much depends upon accustomance to assemble and join; and the improvement of the other upon accustomance to disunite, break and separate. But there is in respect of moral character a parallel variety; some here also are propense to associating, and others to disjoining. Nay as the great variety of genius’s may be in general divided into the aptitude to associate, and the aptitude to dissociate” (1:94-95); and, “That those powers which, at our entrance upon life, are and must necessarily be but in embrio, rude and shapeless as it were, or quite unformed, may be made very vigorous and perfect here by proper exercise and culture; so as to become fit to be employed about any objects of knowledge of whatever kind, or however different from those which make the present materials of our study and speculation. Insomuch that this state may as properly be said to be a school for forming and perfectionating our rational powers, in order to their being prepared and fitted for exercise about higher objects in a succeeding state; as the first part of our education here is called a school for life, or to prepare us for the affairs of the world and manhood, which are objects far above our reach, till our understanding by proper gradual exercise and employment is considerably ripened, or enlarged and strengthened which is the proper business of liberal education” (1:261). MME’s wording on this page also suggests that she may be reading John Blair Linn’s The Powers of Genius: A Poem, in Three Parts, a text which, as Nancy Craig Simmons speculates, MME asked Ruth Haskins Emerson to lend her at this time. As the following examples indicate, selections from both Linn’s notes and introduction especially correspond to MME’s wording: “Invention is the first part of poetry and painting: and absolutely necessary to them both; yet no rule ever was or ever can be given how to compass it. A happy genius is the gift of Nature; it depends on the influence of the stars say the astrologers; on the organs of the body say the naturalists; it is the peculiar gift of Heaven say the divines. How to improve it many books can teach us; how to obtain it, none; that nothing can be done without it all agree: In nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva. Without invention a painter is but a copier, and a poet but a plagiary of others” (13-14); and “

Say what is genius? words can ne’er define That power which springs from origin divine; We know it by its bold, impetuous force; . . . Invention marks the genius of the soul, And on the lightning rides from pole to pole
” (13) Turnbull_Principles144 Principles of Moral Philosophy Turnbull, mPrinciples Turnbull George J. Noon London 1740 cit pp1:54, 56, 66, 94-95, 261 Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp37 n3 Linn_Powers56 Powers of Genius: A Poem, in Three Parts Linn, mPowers Linn John Blair Asbury Dickins Philadelphia 1801 cit pp13-14 .

MME commonplaces from George Turnbull’s The Principles of Moral Philosophy: “New or uncommon objects greatly attract our minds, and give us very high pleasure. Now by this means we are prompted to look out for new ideas, and to give all diligence to make fresh discoveries in science”  Turnbull_Principles144 Principles of Moral Philosophy Turnbull, mPrinciples Turnbull George J. Noon London 1740 cit pp47 .

MME refers to George Turnbull’s Principles of Moral Philosophy: “And as it is certain, that different textures of eyes must see differently; or every object must necessarily partake of the colour with which the eye itself is tainted: so variety in temperature, texture and mould, (so to speak) among minds, must necessarily produce great variety of conceptions, sentiments and judgments, and consequently of inclinations, appetites and dispositions. … And hence it is, that every man’s turn of thinking is as distinguishable as his face or gate from that of every other; there are as few minds as faces that have not very peculiar and distinguishing features. … All therefore that belongs to the present questions is, how far differences among minds depend upon different textures, and temperaments of bodies, and physical causes, and how and why it is so?”  Turnbull_Principles144 Principles of Moral Philosophy Turnbull, mPrinciples Turnbull George J. Noon London 1740 cit pp1:75-76

MME paraphrases from George Turnbull’s Principles of Moral Philosophy: “The mind of man is so made, that the idea of attainment to great happiness hereafter, by the suitable culture of his mind here, is no sooner presented to it, than it gladly takes hold of it, and indulges itself with truly laudable complacency in the great and cheering hope; nay, it triumphs and exults in it, and thereby feels itself rise to the noblest ambition, and swell with the most elating expectation”  Turnbull_Principles144 Principles of Moral Philosophy Turnbull, mPrinciples Turnbull George J. Noon London 1740 cit pp420 .

In determining the pagination and chronology of this Almanack fascicle, the editors have determined that MME likely wrote this Almanack page in July 1806, since on the next page she appears to continue this Sunday series of Almanack entries and also describes going to Newburyport to care for her ailing sister and niece on the first of August. In July 1806, however, the 19th was a Saturday, rather than a “sab.” or Sunday; MME may therefore be mistaken by a day.

Multiple options are possible for this word.

Samuel Emerson and William Farnham both lived in Newburyport, Massachusetts. They likely brought the news that MME’s sister Hannah Emerson Farnham and perhaps MME’s infant niece, Hannah Bliss Farnham, had fallen ill. Hannah Bliss Farnham died in October 1806; Hannah Emerson Farnham died of tuberculosis in March the following year. MME cared for her sister, if not both of them, during the fall of 1806 in the Farnham home in Newburyport Cole_MME21 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit ppx Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp35, 36, 38 .

MME quotes from John Milton’s “Il Penseroso”: “ — The spirit of Plato to unfold What worlds, or what vast regions hold The immortal mind that hath forsook Her mansion in this fleshy nook And of those demons that are found In fire, air, flood, or under-ground Whose power hath a true consent With planet, or with element ”  Milton_Il_Penseroso65 Il Penseroso Milton John Comus, a Mask. . . Milton, aIl Penseroso page117-24 T. Bensley London 1799 pp117124117–24 cit pp120-1 .

MME may refer to the story in Luke 2:21-35, describing Mary and Joseph taking their infant, Jesus, to Jerusalem to be circumcised in the temple and hearing Simeon’s prophecy about his fate. Verses 34 and 35, especially, prophesy Mary’s future pain as it relates to her son’s future: “And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against; (Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also,) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.” Or MME may allude to John Milton’s Samson Agonistes, which she is reading at this time, and which describes Samson pulling down the pillars of the “heathen” temple of the Philistines. Milton_Samson67 Paradise Regain’d. A Poem, in Four Books. To Which is Added Samson Agonistes. . . Milton, mSamson page75-132 Milton John J. and R. Tonson London 1765 pp7513275–132 cit

MME quotes from John Milton’s Samson Agonistes: “ Amidst their heighth of noon Changest thy countenance, and thy hand with no regard Of highest favors past From thee on them, or them to thee of service ”  Milton_Samson67 Paradise Regain’d. A Poem, in Four Books. To Which is Added Samson Agonistes. . . Milton, mSamson page75-132 Milton John J. and R. Tonson London 1765 pp7513275–132 cit pp96-97 .

Later on this page, MME gives the date as 11 November. The editors therefore believe it likely that the many preceding dates on this page were written in October 1806. If their judgment is accurate, MME is mistaken by a day in calling October 27 a “sab.” since this date fell on a Monday rather than a Sunday in 1806.

MME alludes to The Song of Solomon 5:2, which begins, “I sleep, but my heart waketh.”

Written in pencil.

MME may have been in Boston to visit her brother William Emerson, who lived there at this time. In 1806, MME and her sister Sarah Ripley took turns caring for Hannah Emerson Farnham and Hannah's infant daughter Hannah Bliss Farnham, who were both ill with tuberculosis, in their Newburyport home. Hannah Bliss died on October 11, 1806 Cole_MME21 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit pp116, 117 Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp36 n2 .

MME refers to a group of young men and women, including the sisters Hannah Sawyer (later Hannah Sawyer Lee) and Mary Anna Sawyer (later Mary Anna Sawyer Schuyler), with whom she had become acquainted in Newburyport and Concord, Massachusetts by 1805. In June 1806, MME described these women as “leaders of Newburyport’s beau monde.” MME and Lee, who became an author, discussed William Cowper and Edward Young in 1806; Lee later joined this literary coterie, loosely led by Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck of Concord. At age 17, while living with Hannah and William Farnham in Newburyport, MME first met Ann Bromfield. The two were associates in the same network of intellectual women throughout their lives and together suffered the death of their mutual friend Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck. In 1843, MME referred to Bromfield as her “antiently formed acquaintance.” As a young lawyer and Harvard graduate, Daniel Appleton White boarded with the Farnhams in Newburyport. While there in 1806 caring for her ailing sister Hannah Farnham, MME described White as her “sole companion … in the social table he occupied my attention & shortened my labors.” She introduced White to her close friend Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck in Concord; the two became engaged in January 1807 Cole_MME21 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit pp17, 91, 117, 135, 262 Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp36 .

MME alludes to Hebrews 4:15: “For we have not an high Priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.”

MME likely refers to Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence of Sir William Jones Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp37 .

MME likely refers to Sir William Jones, whose Memoirs of the Life she is reading at this time Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp37 .

MME quotes from Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence, of Sir William Jones : “O thou Bestower of all Good! if it please thee to continue my easy tasks in this life, grant me strength to perform them as a faithful servant; but if thy wisdom hath willed to end them by this thy visitation, admit me, not weighing my unworthiness, but through thy mercy declared in Christ, into thy heavenly mansions, that I may continually advance in happiness, by advancing in true knowledge and awful love of thee. Thy will be done!”  Jones_Memoirs53 Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence, of Sir William Jones Jones, mMemoirs Jones Sir William Teignmouth Baron John Shore Wm. Poyntell Philadelphia 1805 cit pp256 .

Hannah Emerson Farnham died of tuberculosis in March 1807. Farnham, who lived in Newburyport, had previously travelled for her health, including to Boston, where her and MME’s brother William lived Simmons_SL130 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit pp36 Cole_MME21 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit pp116-17 .

MME alludes to Matthew 14:27-32: “But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.”

May be written in pencil.

MME may refer to Edmund Burke’s A Vindication of Natural Society (1756), a pamphlet in which Burke frequently mentions the “state of nature” in his examination of social structures and religious belief. By “tow ser.” MME likely refers to Robert Robinson’s translations of the sermons of Jacques Saurin, which she mentions later in this paragraph and which she continues to praise over the next several months, both in the Almanacks and in her correspondence. The “last lay” is likely Sir Walter Scott’s “The Lay of the Last Minstrel: A Poem (Canto First)” (1805), a poem with which MME was very familiar and which her Concord friend and fellow literary coterie member, Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck, “states that she was reading on November 20, the evening of which she spent with MME in Concord”  Burke_Vindication14 Vindication of Natural Society Burke, mVindication page1-51 Burke Edmund John West Boston 1806 vol1 pp1511–51 The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke cit pp6, 8, 12, 20, 23, 43, 44, 48, 49 Dwight_Memorials30 Memorials of Mary Wilder White: A Century Ago in New England Dwight, mMemorials Dwight Elizabeth Amelia Tileston Mary Wilder Everett Press Company Boston 1903 cit pp248, 261 .

Based on evidence that includes MME’s reflection on the next line that she “worship[s]” on this day as she “had not for 16 sabbaths” and her repeated date of “25” on the next page of this Almanack, the editors judge that this Almanack page was written in November 1806, four months after MME went to Newburyport to care for her ailing sister. If this date is correct, however, then MME mistakenly dates this “sabbath” November 25; in 1806, this date fell on a Tuesday.

MME possibly alludes to Isaiah 40:31: “But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint.”

MME alludes to Psalms 111:10: “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever”; and to Psalms 63:5: “My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness; and my mouth shall praise thee with joyfull lips.”

MME may allude to 1 Corinthians 15:56: “The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law.”

MME likely alludes to Luke 23:39-43, in which Jesus promises paradise to a thief hanging next to him on a cross: “And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.”

MME alludes to Luke 7:37-38: “And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee’s house, brought an alabaster box of ointment, And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment.”

MME may allude to Ephesians 3:19: “And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.”

MME alludes to Alexander Pope’s An Essay on Man: “ Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest Pope_Essay112 Essay on Man, in Four Epistles Pope Alexander Bowles William Lisle Works of Alexander Pope, Esq., in Verse and Prose. . . Pope, aEssay on Man page1-194 J. Johnson London 1806 10 vols. vol3 pp11941–194 cit pp3:24 .

MME alludes to Jeremiah 31:3: “The LORD hath appeared of old unto me, saying, Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee.”

MME loosely quotes from Edmund Burke’s A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: “Before the Christian religion has, as it were, humanized the idea of the Divinity, and brought it somewhat nearer to us, there was very little said of the love of God. The followers of Plato have something of it, and only something; the other writers of pagan antiquity, whether poets or philosophers, nothing at all. And they who consider with what infinite attention, by what a disregard to every perishable object, through what long habits of piety and contemplation it is, any man is able to attain an entire love and devotion to the Deity, will easily perceive, that it is not the first, the most natural, and the most striking effect which proceeds from that idea”  Burke_Enquiry13 Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. . . Burke, mEnquiry Burke Edmund D. Johnson Philadelphia 1806 cit pp104 .

Jesus adjudicates “the greatest in the kingdom of heaven” by offering severe “instructions” to his disciples in Matthew 18, particularly in verse 8: “Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire”; and in verse 9: “And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.”

This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 14 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining.

This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 14 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining.

MME may allude to John 1:15-17: “John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me. And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace. For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.”

MME alludes to Colossians 4:12: “Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, saluteth you, always labouring fervently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God.”

MME alludes to Mark 12:30: “And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.”

MME may allude to 2 Peter 1:11: “For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly, into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.”

MME alludes to Psalms 40:8: “I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart.”

This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 12 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining.

This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 12 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining.

MME misquotes from Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: “An heathen poet has a sentiment of a similar nature; Horace looks upon it as the last effort of philosophical fortitude, to behold without terror and amazement, this immense and glorious fabric of the universe”  Burke_Enquiry13 Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. . . Burke, mEnquiry Burke Edmund D. Johnson Philadelphia 1806 cit pp297 .

Irrecoverable text due to manuscript damage adds to the difficulty of understanding the complete context for this unusual phrase. In the early nineteenth century, as today, gourd was a colloquial term for head; our research has not determined whether the colloquialism “off my gourd” then, as today, meant emotionally unbalanced, nor is it evident, given the missing text, what MME may have meant by such a phrase in the context of this Almanack passage. She may, however, refer to one of two biblical “gourds.” In the book of Jonah, chapter 4, Jonah has reluctantly gone to Nineveh to deliver God’s warning that its city’s residents should repent of their sinful ways or risk destruction. All of the people and the king took the message seriously. They repented, fasted, and prayed for mercy, and God therefore decided not to punish them, which angered Jonah, who had waited outside the city gates to watch Nineveh’s destruction: “So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the city. And the Lord God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd. But God prepared a worm when the morning rose the next day, and it smote the gourd that it withered. And it came to pass, when the sun did arise, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself to die, and said, It is better for me to die than to live. And God said to Jonah, Doest thou well to be angry for the gourd? And he said, I do well to be angry, even unto death. Then said the Lord, Thou hast had pity on the gourd, for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night, and perished in a night: And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle” (Jonah 4:5-11). Perhaps, in referring to “my gourd—bitter let me feel it,” MME compares her own displeasure at her visiting “Company” with Jonah’s lack of empathy for the Ninevites. Although less likely, MME could refer to a “bitter” or poisonous “gourd” in 2 Kings 4:38-40: “And Elisha came again to Gilgal; and there was a dearth in the land; and the sons of the prophets were sitting before him: and he said unto his servant, Set on the great pot, and see the pottage for the sons of the prophets. And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds his lap full, and came and shred them into the pot of pottage: for they knew them not. So they poured out for the men to eat. And it came to pass, as they were eating of the pottage, that they cried out, O thou man of God, there is death in the pot. And they could not eat thereof.”

MME may be alluding to Psalms 139:8: “If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there.” “Abodes of hell” was a common literary phrase in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, as evidenced by these examples from Thomas Cook’s translation of Hesiod’s The Theogony: “Th’ abodes of Hell from the same fountain rise”; from William Falconer’s The Shipwreck: “Such torments in the drear abodes of hell”; and from Tobias Smollett’s translation of Miguel De Cervantes Saavedra’s The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote: “Nor am I, in the least, mortified to hear that I wander like a fantastic shadow through the dark abodes of hell”  Cooke_Theogony23 Works of Hesiod Cooke, mTheogony Hesiod translator Cooke Thomas John Wood and Ch. Woodward London 1740 cit pp142 Falconer_Shipwreck38 The Shipwreck, A Poem Falconer, mShipwreck Falconer William Abraham Shearman New-Bedford 1802 cit pp120 Smollett_Don_Quixote132 History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote Smollett, mDon Quixote Saavedra Miguel de Cervantes translator Smollett Tobias A. Millar London 1755 2 vols. cit pp2:445 .

This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 9 cm. in height, with little discernible text remaining.

This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 9 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining.

MME alludes to a portion of Psalms 144:3: “LORD, what is man, that thou takest knowledge of him! or the son of man, that thou makest account of him!”; and to Acts 3:13: “The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him go.”

MME refers to Virgil’s Aeneid, in which a part of the underworld, Elysium, is reserved for contented souls. The “hero” of Elysium, Musæus, describes this idyllic aspect of Hades: “First then, the divine Spirit within sustains the Heavens, the Earth, and watery Plains, the Moon’s enlightened Orb, and shining Stars; and the eternal Mind, diffused through all the Parts of Nature, actuates the whole stupendous Fame, and mingles with the vast Body of the Universe. Thence proceed the Race of Men and Beasts, the vital Principles of the flying Kind, and the Monsters which the Ocean breeds under its smooth crystal Plain. These Principles have the active Force of Fire, and are of a heavenly Original, which they exert so far as they are not clogged by noxious Bodies, blunted by Earth-born Limbs and sickly dying Members. From the Union and Incumbrance they are subjected to various Passions, they fear and desire, grieve and rejoice: and, shut up in Darkness and a gloomy Prison, lose Sight of their native Skies. Nay, even when with the last Beams of Light their Life is gone, yet not every Ill, nor all corporeal Stains, are quite removed from the unhappy Beings: And it is absolutely unavoidable that many vicious Habits, which have long grown up with the Soul, should be strangely confirmed and riveted therein. Therefore are they afflicted with Pains, and pay the Penalties of their former Ills. Some, hung on high, are spread out to whiten in the empty Winds: In others the Guilt not done away is washed out in a vast watery Abyss, or burnt away in Fire: We have each of us his Demon, from whom we suffer, till Length of Time, after the fixed Period is elapsed, hath done away the inherent Stains, and hath left celestial Reason pure from all irregular Passions, and the Soul, that Spark of heavenly Fire, in its original Purity and Brightness, simple and unmixed. Then are we conveyed into Elysium, and we, who are the happy few, possess the Field of Bliss. All these Souls whom you see, after they have rolled away a thousand Years, are summoned fothirrth by the God in a great Body to the River Lethe; to the Intent that, losing Memory of the past, they may revisit the Upper Regions, and again become willing to return into Bodies” Virgil_Aeneid147 The Æneid Virgil, mÆneid 1:181-353, 2:1-470 Virgil translator Campbell Malcolm E. Duyckinck New York 1803 2 volumes pp1:181353, 2:11:181–353, 2:1–470 Works of Virgil. . . cit 2:162-64

MME alludes to Psalms 42:1: “As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God.”

MME slightly misquotes from Alexander Pope’s “Satire IV”: “ To wholesome Solitude, the nurse of sense: Where contemplation prunes her ruffled wings, and the free soul looks down to pity Kings! ”  Pope_Satire_IV114 Satire IV, in The Satires of Dr. John Donne, Dean of St. Paul’s, Versified Pope Alexander Bowles William Lisle Works of Alexander Pope, Esq., in Verse and Prose. . . Pope, aSatire IV page278-305 J. Johnson London 1806 10 vols. vol4 pp278305278–305 cit pp4:295 .

Our research has located no direct source of this quotation, which may be MME’s own rhetorical query. MME seems to be paraphrasing a common theological argument relative to divine grace in bestowing salvation, the question of free will versus determinism, and moral agency as well as the burden of human accountability to observe strict moral codes. Similar wording is found in various theological works with which MME may have been familiar, including “Man’s Natural Blindness in the Things of Religion” by Jonathan Edwards, “nations under Popish darkness . . . think they can do works of supererogation: that is, more good works than they are obliged to do, whereby they bring God into debt to them” (qtd. in Hopkins_Sermon_III52 Sermon III: Man’s Natural Blindness in the Things of Religion [February 1740] Hopkins Samuel Life and Character of the Late Reverend, Learned, and Pious Mr. Jonathan Edwards, President of the College of New Jersey. . . Hopkins, aSermon III S. & E. Butler Northampton 1804 cit pp183-184 ); Edwards’s Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended: “But the merit of our respect or obedience to God is not infinite. The merit of respect to any being does not increase, but is rather diminished, in proportion to the obligations we are under in strict justice to pay him that respect. There is no great merit in paying a debt we owe, and by the highest possible obligations in strict justice are obliged to pay, but there is great demerit in refusing to pay it. That on such accounts as these there is an infinite demerit in all sin against God, which must therefore immensely outweigh all the merit which can be supposed to be in our virtue, I think, is capable of full demonstration; and that the futility of the objections which some have made against the argument, might most plainly be demonstrated” Edwards_Original_Sin33 Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended. . . Edwards, mOriginal Sin page125-490 Edwards Jonathan Isaiah Thomas, Jun. Worcester 1808-1809 8 vols. vol6 pp125490125–490 Works of President Edwards cit pp155-156 ; and writings by William Romaine: “All his mercies are covenant mercies; given from mere grace, and given to miserable sinners—not to make them self-admirers, but to humble them—not to lead them to think that they can bring God in debt to them for his own gifts, or for the right use of them, which is a fresh gift—but he gives all the praise of the glory of his grace” Romaine_Works122 Works of the Late Reverend William Romaine . . . Romaine, mWorks Romaine William T. Chapman London 1796 8 vols. cit vol1 pp274-75 .

MME alludes to several biblical verses as follows: Psalms 97:2: “Clouds and darkness are round about him: righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne”; Exodus 20:19: “And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die”; 1 Kings 8:6-8: “And the Priests brought in the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD unto his place, into the oracle of the house, to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubims. For the cherubims spread forth their two wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubims covered the ark, and the staves thereof above. And they drew out the staves, that the ends of the staves were seen out in the holy place before the oracle, and they were not seen without: and there they are unto this day”; Isaiah 6:1-2: “In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly”; and Revelations 4:8-10: “And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, LORD God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come. And when those beasts give glory, and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour, and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.”

Annotation still in progress.

Annotation still in progress.