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The editors, Sandra H. Petrulionis and Noelle Baker, would like to acknowledge the support of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Fund, the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association, Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, Harvard University’s Houghton Library, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this edition do not necessarily reflect those of the NEH.


handwriting Malden For Charles. vo handwriting

handwriting I cannot easily express the joy w’h which this ardent pursuit of duty inspires—views of death & eternity so exhilarting exhilarating ! Glimspes of God govt government sentiments inspired by his presence & attributes— Oh may I never reach a period when I shall lose sight of a probationary state so interesting! I tremble least lest I am about to leave this solitude. I have been these some days reading a little portion of scripture with attention— Can I ever forget the eternal consequence of love & humility—. I last night practiced anew on the latter— with success to the happiness of others I hope. Today I visited the grave yard—how interested—how realising was the tho’ts thoughts of my own descease—how animating of reposing limbs weary in offices of love in the bosom of the peacefull earth. I saw merecy tho though guilty I was not niggardly—at such a time to have paused wd would have been criminal!

1804-10~-3131. Yesterday at 2 o’ck o’clock came Sarah! Never so glad to see any one it seemed. She tarried 24 hours. Some of the most social. & afft affectionate . Rockwood & Daniel past passed the eve. How could I at first been so engaged in his society? Dear Sarah set off at 8 today. Uncle & Aunt returned this eve. Comes care & clamour with variance with the other family. God most mer nocifull forgive & bless me. I erred today in walking—intoxicated with pleasure.

1804~11-01 No. November 1. Morn. Hail day of life, widened, lenghtened & strenghtened! There is a wonderfull consistency—(an nameless th e o handwriting feature of truth w’h which is adapted to the consitution of the mind, thro’ through the scriptures together with a marvellous mystery which while it is callulated calculated to incite inquiry—to keep alive the endless curiosty of man, eludes opens sources of endless variety in opinions. Stronge proof of their divine origin.

Noon. In passing this little time this little department of eternity what accountability! A division of existence filled with duties w’h which handwriting handwriting exist not else where—pity in all it’s offices benev HM10bno GTF1,SIcontinuedno BP2no volence in most interesting demands are here in this world of diversied woes only to be filled What hint hart heart what sanctity what passion & power sd should not be made subservient to a AU handwriting of w’h which interests all intelligences? In Heaven we shall sympa nothise with happiness but possibly not add to it’s sum!

Eve. How inrapturing the sight of the Heavens—exalt the sentiment— by remembering the voice of inspiration I have been to lecture tonight—poor Preacher but my ardor is not to be cooled. I felt worldly too!

1804-11~-022 Such is life I never expect to feel more fully the feast of con- notentment—it is more animated & sublime than content— How nar norow & feeble my views I know—other situations might inlarge my existence—but none could inrich the coulers colors of the Heavens or give a great zest to the joys of love & faith w’h which religion inspires. I wd would reflect on the disppts disappointments of knowledge & the feebleness of pursuit—but I cannot.

Sab Sabbath eve. 1804-11~-044. Day of that sort of pleasure w’h which I fear—prevented zeal penitence & knowledge—relaxed—vain tho’ts thoughts insued— Cannot accuse myself of indolence in deed—felt the sweet influence of secret hope, joy & charity. But in gaining the habit of meditation this eve I strove to add numbers of ages to my existence— How then frivolous does all injoyt enjoyment appear on this earth—how dangerous— sd should any thing be ommitted!!!! how extensive is the effect of one idea on the principal of association —how extensive the association in the world of ideas—after millions of years, when on the verge of a new existence (for such is the nature of created existences to be forever new to life) on entering new scenes—untried & full of hope then to feel the full effect of some long forgotten habit—!! the remotest posi nobility of such consequences (& such as we find here in this im- noperfect sketch of God’s moral govt government ) sd should arouse a never ceasing anxiety! It is said that the desire of immort immortality is universal—the desire of continued existence is—but when I contemplate endless being HM9 GTF1,SII BP3 I shudder & am confounded—if it be an nhandwriting appetite, one object incomprehensible— Query. Is there any appetite thro’out throughout our organisation to w’h which some object is not adapted? I acknowledge, it is from our organisation the sentiment arises—that it is an inmate of the soul & not a deduction of reason I allow, & the case of Savage proves it to be such. I can find no argument for a future existence from reason, unless it be the reason of a Deist.— —hence the nessisity of a revelation—for that of a Deist is feeble, & insuficient (alone) for the purposes of morality. The crude expectation w’h which has dwelt univirsally in the mind of man, tho’ though it does not prove handwriting to a demonstration the truth of a future somthing, yet fur- nonishes an argument irrestistable to contrary reason, and supports the internal evidences of revelation. Still what I call the desire of immot immortality is only a desire of continued consciousness— As a proof of endless being it seems we may rank that novelty w’h which perpetually attends life—on the borders of the graee grave the hoary sage looks forward with an invarible elasticity of mind.— or hope

Night. Whether the mind exist from the organisation of matter or be an immaterial substance as different from a material as the rays of light from the surface w’h which reflects them it’s construction may often, as well as it’s diseases, be analogous to that of the body. In the latter we find a power of life—& w’h which counteracts diseases & decay—when this power is stimulated too much or crowded as it were—the habits become depraved & the natural tendency of the body to preserve health weakned—so it HM9b GTF1,SIIcontinued BP4 with the m handwriting—and it’s native light may be obscured by handwriting reading, & it’s strenght consumed under the burden of too handwriting matter.

1804-11~-055 A.M. f01i002“We know but little of the nature general laws w’h which regulate the natural world, & still less of those w’h which moral laws w’h which regard the conduct of intelligent beings & the relations w’h which may exist between them & the Maker of all things.”— — — f01i003“A moral govt government not incompatible with general laws (no, nor with absolute decrees, per- nohaps, surely not, if many passages of scripture are true) for if we allow that those laws were origenally origanally pas t d passed by a moral Governor, they are from the beginning adapted to moral purposes, those parts therefor in the moral system w’h which appear deviations from what we call general laws of nature & ways of Provi Providence may be in fact only a part of them tho’ though the sight is too dim to see their connection. These tho’ts thoughts readily reconcile the notion of prescience & an overruling Provi. Providence for in fact the same thing.” These tho’ts thoughts have passed my own mind in much the same connection.

Eve. Why oh my God are thy virtuous creatures ever unhappy! It is because they comprehend nothing of the wonders w’h which surround them in the vast vol. volume of nature—in the divine book of providence w’h which nature unfolds, and which revelations writes with sun beams! They grovel in the dark—they feel not after God they perceive not the charm w’h which binds the Universe & is diffused over every object & event. Place, objects of sense w’h which press on the mind engross them & once animated by the works & government of God—and the enlarged mind sympathis- noing with all that is human—with all that is interesting in the world of ideas & virtue wd would defy care ennuie & apathy—the thirst of knowledge kindled—the intellectual eye once opened & tho’ though the mind might pant & hunger, yet it’s pains wd would be precious & it’s struggles noble. f01i004“In viewing the operations of the Deity, we wer surrounded with infinity of forms, of combina no tion—of magnitudes, of space, of time. The final object of HM8 GTF1,SIII BP5 knowlegde is to give us more perfect notions of the supreme Be no ing, & to make us more reciprocally usefull. The degree in w’h which we can be usefull, depends in a great measur on the degree ac- no cording to w’h which we can rightly estimate the powers of nature, and according to wh which the degree in w’h which we know how the Supreme Being adapts the train of causation to the end to be produced. The farther advances we make to the source of all intelligence, we more reason we have to admire his perfections & reverence his power. Admi noration must generate the desire of imatation; & serious impressions of religious veneration must give life to a sentiment of univer nosal love & charity.”

Night. A word amiss—manners of levity and I lost what I am after.

1804-11~-066. Morn. Were it not that I considered the least ray of knowlegde inconceivably important as producing future effects on my practice & usefullness, I sd should not labour thus I sd should taste the fuller pleasurs of ease, hope & retirement. I could walk—could knit—could even in this Town find food for my social affections—could amuse myself with books at a high rate, and acquire those showy virtues w’h which dazzel & please! But what a dereliction of veiws wd would take place! What a different being! My heart wd would have objects beneathe it, And tho’ though on the whole I might be happier for the present, yet what of old age, when these soothing vertues shall wither! It is a fundamental mistake, fatal to the vitals of an elevated be nonevolence, that the most social & gentle habits are the surest means of cultivating it’s spirit. It is in hearts subjugated by grace and sanctified from the world, where only the spirit of love is triumphant. —the means alone I dispute, and main notain that as far more promotive of piety is solitude, so is it of the sympathies of benevolence—for these follow that. The fact is, that every process of virtue is a preparation as it re no lates to the agent and solitude wd would be but a dreams of of ease to mortals, were it not preparative to the duties of society HM8b GTF1,SIIIcontinued BP6 here and the duties & pleasuers of society hereafter. The heart ge- nonerally preys on something—it wd would be dangerous to collect around me objects of pleasue & amusement in this situation— I wd would have my heart find no rest on barren ground.

Night. at 12 came brother & sister C— & left their Wm I never was so illy prepared for company & never recevd received any so happily nor enjoyed any more In thinking of the omnicience of God we find a rapose & joy equalled by nothing beside. True, it does not prove the actual providence of God in all events— He may govern us by stated laws of in the natural & moral world and interpose neither to resist sin—disease or death. It is certain that were he to act irresist noably on the mind there wd would appear to be an end of all moral agency & govt government . Still, am I disposed off of according to laws established or de nocrees, from eternity I am as resigned & joyfull as if they were this instant formed in the divine mind. Am I left to the pre nocarious & hazardous honors or disgraces w’h which may await my own conduct inevitably or probably, it is the wise at moments establishment of a God whom I supremely love—and tho’ though I tremble at moments at the pre- nosent disadvantages w’h which may accrue to me from want of commonplachandwriting prudence, . With a deep & rational convi noviction of future scenes, these will require but common courage to surmount. However as a matter of reverent speculation we may conjecture that the infinite Mind in whom we exist & move is never inactive. The human mind seems forever in motion— the material world reposes not an instant, but some of its laws operate with inconceivable velosity—the hand of the Almighty weilds the creation—his eye beholds it—does He only rest!? Yes, in the sublimest sense! his will is the law of nature creation & moves & breathes & thinks & reasons thro’out throughout the Universe!! Lost in wonder & ignorance let us adore & ad no mire & praise Him!! That I love Him supremely I belive bhandwriting handwriting his will & approbation are ultimate when I contemplate handwriting HM7 GTF1,SIV BP7 handwriting & the possible honors & pleasur of Heaven.

1804-11~-077. Morn. How more handwriting must be that intelligent being who does not rejoice in the chara no cter of God—low & feeble his enjoyment w’h which does not result from confidence in it.

Night. Perhaps I ought to fear this hilarity—but it is connected with newer emotions of religious joy. I could not be reverent tonight with poor Mr. G—s preaching — I sympathised with the joys of the vulgar— I trod on air, I danced at the musick of my own imajanation—it is well no one knows the frolick of my fancy, for they wd would think me wild unless they knew me. Ideas of objects—scenes & sentiments loved & cherished thro’ through vanity & the social appetite adieu! I dance our everlasting farewel. Friends, in what dear forms I can paint you! Vanish—for you are but paintings— I press on to yonder skies! Scenes of dirt, vulgarity, misery & unqualified ignorance I hail you as the safest, spediest passage to worlds of light—gay pleasure—ardent hope and activity w’h which knows no langor!

1804-11~-077. Morn. God I praise! Angels can do no better— but sin dwells in me— of the Univirce! sprinkle my sacrifice with incence! The senses distract and pollute my worship, but they cannot weaken my hopes.

1804-11~-088 Morn. Were the genius of the xian christian religion painted, her form would be full of majesty—her mein solemn, her aspect benign and strongly impressed with joy & hope, her eyes raised to Heaven with tears for Zion and rays of glory desending to illumi nonate the earth at her intreaties!

Night I have been up 13 hours Save 3 I have had them to myself. I wd would sacrifice almost any thing to be able to appreciate justly the pleasures & profit of such days. Whether I read the best handwriting books I can & whether I read too much I certainly read more than is easy for my eyes or mind—but little very little. —. . Unusual ardor in devotion tonight attones for the diap t disappointment of knowledge tho’ thro’ through day. It is painfull that I have made no more advance here—it wd would have been natural with such habits. Oh it is important—devout sensations purifys & exalts the soul. A duty to God, inexpressible reverence as well as the warm language of peace & love.

1804-11~-1010 Too gay—but these dark scenes raise my mirth. Poor old folks! Were I to sympathise with them I must quickly quit and render them miserable.

1804-11~-1111 Sab Sabbath . eve. Dull, dull day—this health & strenght to lose, abuse! I laid abed this morning! No one I don’t believe ever attained eminece eminence in virtue who did not deny them noselves sleep & food in a degree. I am discouraged in attaining love gratitude devotion or knowldge! I am glad I feel it.

1804-11~-1212. I rose in high style—poor day—cold weather cold chiling I could not read I had not courage to stand the wind & put bye my walk to Lynn. Felt a secret resentment & injured the feelings of the aged. Lost the Girl by my ready belief that she could do better otherwise I lose thro’ through impruedence— This eve. I rose above all incumbrances in devotion & social duties. Retierment & devotion naterally beget an elevated temper & indifference to present incidents. But I have failad failed & fallen in the temptations of the year past.

1804-11~-1313. Morn. Yesterday I walked 3 miles or more to Lynn . Never were emotions so ani nomated & uninterrupted as those of my walk. Diapt Disappointment of finding Mr & Mrs F— returned soon unwearied but lost perhaps the eveg evening When we contemplate the graves of the departed the idea of their pleasurs & honors never incite emulation but their virtues do; How useless at best every bodily sensation of pleasure, but the least virtue gained thro’ through mortification of those will adhere forever to the consciousness of identity. Beside selfishness will be won- noderfully counteracted by incessant labours, however mean, for others Why our commanded labours & tears, were not the happiness of people in their own power? Were it altogether in God’s, why weep on human sorrows? Were it not even (by circumstances alone) in Gods in a degree HM6 GTF1,SV BP9 handwriting, why pray? Only to cultivate love? Is not prayer a means for bringing to pass the decrees of God? As it affects the minds of individuals & societies it has a natural tendency to promote the good we solicit by arousing personal & publick exertion. But as to the assertion that Butler makes of our f01i006“our joys and most of our sufferings be- noing put in our own power” is contradicted by experience & reve— revelation It is the reverse of this truth w’h which is a captital difficulty in natural religionit and to obviate which, seems to be a peculi- noar advantage in revealed. Were virtue to have it’s natural effect it wd would be it’s own reward in most all instances, even where the love of it was not eminently cultivated. Tho’ Though in all ordinary cases the pleasures (I speake not of it’s solid sattisfactions) must depend on the temper; there are tempers, or habits of soul, which will as surely be happy as certain effects follow their causes, save some violent obstructions of vice or affliction. If then the physical differ noences in individuals put it out of their power to be equally happy or unhappy with others of equal virtue, added to the nameless variety of circum- nostances w’h which discouler discolor & variate their lives, it cannot be that our joys or sufferings are so much in our own power. Still it argues nothing against natural or revealed religion. Variety of trials are ad- noapted to variety of tempers. And I had rather my every joy & greif sd should be allotted me by that mode, be it what it may, by w’h which God governs his creatures. Besides circumstances are evidently designed by God as coercivess coercives to the good & bad—to try, humble and purify them, and the greatest events have been accor.dly accordingly the sufferings of the good.

1804-11~-1414 Eve. handwriting irly wakefullness. I seem to live. I pant for knowledge HM6b GTF1,SVcontinued BP10 In praising God it has a natural tendency to impress the mind with awe of it’s advantages—to realize the distinctions it enjoys— r n handwriting noed, , po r s ting to immortality—called from nothing to be an intelligent part of the Univerce, hold of an existence handwriting without a doubt of losing it, whose every law turns on hope! And these last truths are those which are supplied from nature & insured by revelation! Those w’h which have their foun- nodation in our moral constitution, and informed by God are very dear to us. But when we contemplate our inability to keep the revealed will of God in any one instance perfectly, and to act up to the dictates of our own reason when our passions are in- noterested, how gratefull we feel, how marvellously gracious appears the interposition of Christ and his attonement! But when we view it in the light of imputation we are bewildered. We are fallen, depraved; deeply by nature. . But enough is known for matter of the most constant love gratitude and vigilance. The more exalt noed and just our views of the duties we owe to God, the more we shall realize our natural inability to discharge them, and the apprehend somthing of the misery attendant on a failure in duty. Lively convictions of truth as it exists in our immortality and our consequent hopes, induce & strenghten a practical faith in Christ and profreessing professing attachment to his interposition.

1804-11~-1515 Injured the feelings of the aged once.

1804-11~-1616 Sab Sabbath . eve. I am so smale in my expectations that a week of industry delights. Rose before light every morn. — Washed, carded cleaned house and baked. Today I cannot recall an error; nor scarsly a sacrifice—but more fullness of content in the labours of a day never was felt. There is an sweet pleasur in bending to curcumstances; while superior to them

1804-11~-1717 sab sabbath eve. Never did mortal with no larger powers experience more serene hope & joy in a morning than I did on the early dawn of this. At Chh Church I found a frivolous Preacher tho’ though polished, whether it was him —but never was a day past passed in less tho’t thought —less existence—more ease & glee. The same kind of enjoyment w’h which we see bouy up the weake from one period, or desolate, useless life to another. We think them unhappy, from their situation & emptiness, till we watch them; and then we conclude it is the mercifull arrangement of God that they are full. Alass #Emerson_MME_NotebooksRWE2B.289Also , it is hap nopy for them; but let us avoid their destiny, as we would disgrace. Negative virtue if such it may be called, is dis nogracefull to mind. , till noon; then imaja. imagination took a quiet possesion. I am not aware of my enimeis enemies — I maintain no fight— . I am a poor needy sinner; complete in nothing, lacking in all the whole of many things, I fear!

f01i007All reasonabe men know that certainly there can not be in reality be such a thing as chance but conclude that such appearances are the result of general laws & must be reduced into them. Tho’ Though we can trace up the natural causes of things but little way to general law.

1804-11~-18 18 #Emerson_MME_NotebooksRWE2B.29010 . Parson G. Es q c r Esquire &c tea’d here. There is an influence in society w’h which can be accounted for only on metaphysical principles. It is estimable—it is in short, the great bond tho though #Emerson_MME_NotebooksRWE2B.290the invisible of society and a sourcee of endless dangers, priviledges, joys & sorrows! We ob noserve not these laws of society till the bitterness of nega notive & positive experience teach them. How much more forcibly shall we experience these laws in the world of disimbodied spirits! How nameless the importance of our RWE2B.290society then! To retrace any particular passage of our lives HM5b GTF1,SVIcontinued BP12 now dark, or taisteless, or ambiguous in company with some favor- noite spirit, whose long vista of existence has crowned him with distinguished laurels of wisdom & penetration; to trace any of our past journey, and develop it’s character by the aid of this courteous immortal handwritingtihandwriting how richly repaid for every sufferance. Nor is it unrea nosonable to conclude that in identifying our past existence we shall at passages blush with modest, not guilty emotions. Yes it may be in such society by their inlightening vision, that we discover the relations of our conduct in such views that those parts w’h which have long reproached us shall cease to wound handwriting y longer. Would we be distinguished among the endless variety and numbers of the immence community w’h which we shall behold, we must cultivate the vertues w’h which do not pretend to dazzel and at notract the gaze of the world— Would we when coasting the riegions of other worlds behold new orders of intelligences with advantages to arrest their attention and invite their interest; let us bear about some pecu noliar test of our Soverign’s approbation—some rich insignia of his pleasure in us! What does he asign his favorites as instances of his love; the sweet & gentle virtues of the heart, those to w’h which he has promised blessedness .

Night. Whatever speculative views people who pretend to philosophise on general priniples say against prayer, we can confute all by the internal evidences of it’s utility. Still reason has her claims. HM4 GTF1,SVII BP13 handwriting and the various events attendant on, and the wonderfull suc- no cess attached to this duty form a bright portion of the scriptures. It is an unwarrantable persumption to argue against it on the prini no ples of Gods decrees; in those who profess to believe the scriptures It is enough to silence every objection if God has commanded it. What it’s nature or tendency farther than to sanctify us we know not; we perceive not but by and history sacred & prophane records certain events to follow the prayers w’h which besought them. —the answer was prepared in the laws of nature— and the request was heard from eternity—the events which were requested depended on the operations of the will of others; free, as well as the exercises of prayer. However, we may trace this, as any subject in a speculative way, into endless intricacies and obstruse perplexities. There may be endless disquisitions on the nature of food to assimulate with the blood & invisible spirits of the body, and to preseve preserve that active, yet unrecognisable power of life in the constitution of animals; yet instinct irresitably irresistably overpowers the difficulties of reason; and reason herself takes a practical part, and the body thrivs. Our nobler instincts prompts to feel often—to adore—to rest upon a power superior to what we behold in visible objects and reason in vain searhc search for a support from it’s own resources—it takes part with the desires of the heart and the mind is nourished as actually from this spiritual exercise as the body from imbibing other substances. The above scripture related to the prayers of the good and were matter of promise to times of gospel grace—but such is the native or implied language of the scriptures thro through out. If the good handwriting are to pray, surely the wretched, the weary, the igorhandwriting HM4bno GTF1,SVIIcontinuedno BP14no Were there only a possibility of a Power superior to nature—a distant hope of be- noing related to it, it would the wisest use of all the faculties of the guilty and misirable to implore it’s aid.

1804-11~-1919. Morn. I would not relinquish the hopes, nay, even the positive pleasurs of this day for any of socity. while it was dark, before I was dressed, I begged for mercy—and mercy I find. This habit of rising that I have had of late, is mercy itself. How admirably calculated is the state of trial ad a o pted to our constitution—to that un- noquencable thirst for fame which universally more or less prevails in the human mind. To dirict this to a future good or corrupt its engergies with present objects constitute the man, the philosopher and the xian christian ! In proportion as it gains strenght in a good diriction every virtue increases. Too strong- noly it cannot operate as there is not any intimation in the old or new testa. testament of this life being succeeded by a another of pro- nobation. The head of human nature was perfected here—. His offices and govt government remain but no trials. Our bodies and spirits are so wonderfully adapted that it is a dictate of reason to believe their disunion will end the conflicts. To those who aim at high degrees of perfetion perfection , the present variety of dangers and temptations make their state so intense a scene of vigalance that it may well be sup- noposed to equal the longer one of more refined orders of beings whose obedience is attended with no privations! of body or mind! Yet that it shall introdece us into a state intirely divested of pain I is not probable. That when amid spirits of brighter acquirments and longer views, thro’ through their intenser application, we shall not at times shrink from their society into lower ranks is not unrea- no so nable to expect. Amid the endless d e u vinity which awaits us in HM3 GTF1,SVIII BP15 the events which await us in immortal scenes, these are probably our ad a o pted to our constitution.

Eve. Never so good a day for devotion joy & seeing my brother if in my walk my fancy had not run wild. What a walk—the scene was exhilerating beyond my present leisure to describe.

1804-11~-2020. M Morning . There is nothing within the limits of crim noes so degrading—so extensively unfortunate as that debility of mind which habitually craves the support of praise. Praise is sweet! It’s desire is one of the most important parts of human constui notion constitution . God himself addresses us thro’ through this soothing principle. And where it is not polluted on earth, where it lives and grows by a constant reference to God, it is becomes the cause and the effects at once of the most lofty virtue. As it is vigorous here, it ceases to operate as a improperly in the social intercourse, and thus only can it’s grandest consequences frollow follow . For after this principle is exhausted by heavenly prospects, by earthly sorrows, by age by sickness or disgrace it still has resources—it is in general, perhaps, universially the most invincible of human propensities in mind not brutel & ignorant. Hence, it’s dangers; it’s sickly effects on the weakly virtuous—it often confounds the nice distinction between right & wrong and s a o ps the only foundation of an exclusive piety. It is impossible to cultivate the peculiar graces of the xian christian life and gain the approbation of the captivating inhabi notants of a busy world. Neither can the devotee to praise, however innocent, be per- nomanently happy—the sensibility is tortered, the imajanation be nocomes micorscopic and represents the evanescent failures of the moment as barriers to glory. , must be the motto of the philosopher in contintment as well as the xian christian . HM3b GTF1,SVIIIcontinued BP16 Let the cross, the grave, the crown of Jesus Christ regulate the affection of ambition in every believer of revelation!

Eve. I look not forward to this life—if at all, with hope undashed—but at times like the present I tremble at my present possessions—what do they forebode—what do they do demand! I do not expect ever to be hap nopier in this world than I have been for the past months of health & dilligence. I can never can reasonably expect to injoy so much devotion in any other situation. More active influence more exertion I may injoy—but on the whole never more solid & ani nomated pleasures. Had I never met various trials my virtue might be deceptive. But it is madness to say virtue depends on temp notation & trial for it’s existence. The highest sublimest virtues may be practised in solitude. that is never inactivee. If virtue could only be known and cultured by the laboures of pity and beneficence, which can be practised only in a state of where human misery prevails, then the highest order of beings may not be virtuous. I think of my relations & my MVS & Mrs T. &c with growing tenderness & zeal for their welfare. Where is the sorry weake thing that says habits of bodily intercourse are nesscary to friendship? As we love God we alone are formed to the next holy passion, friendship, the more independant of it’s immediate aids the more pure and lasting it’s nature. God most mercifull, I bless thee in the name of my Master that thou hast formed me capable of friendship in its joys & privations and sd should thou never fully give me the exer nocise of this sublime passion I praise thee for the capasity. And is it irrational or unanalogous to the nature of things to suppose that a soul whose affections are cultivated by the highest objects and unexhausted by earthly ones will join with more fervor & joy the soceity of holy beings? We feel this hunger and injoy a repast of scoial social intercourse with zeal apportioned to our privations. And it is probably consistent with the distributions of God, who often here makes up to us the losses we have sustained in one instance handwriting by the advantages of another. There seems a handwriting HM2 GTF1,SIX BP17 handwriting equalising the happiness of individuals constantly going on. What is poisen in one situation is needed in another. Not one day but it’s b lowo mediumou nds appear set. This eve I am disappt disappointed of the continua handwritinge of my joys by disagreable apprehensions, from these symptoms of my tenia or dropsy, which I often feel without the least ap- no prehension as my health is good. But I never can, I ““believe”” I never shall suffer a moment’s anxiety, as far as I discern the correcting hand of God. Do what He will his will I shall always love. Greatly have I deserved it’s chastisments; and my own sense of justice will be gratified in my punishment. Pho—as far as I can discern how weake, how cowardly, I was an hour agone! If by stated in noevitable laws I suffer, they are Gods laws—whether established a million ages past or this moment, it is the same to me who behold a God continually. If I have ignorantly tampered with them I must submitt. But what we term laws of nature we know but little any m how they operate. It is Gods immediate agency on every particle of matter— That This method of operation is stated; or & or similar is a mercifull ordination—the basis of all expirience, which is called knowledge .

1804-11~-2121. What is the highest, holiest exerise exercise a crea noture can is capable of? Contemplating with suitable affections the Creator! The impressions are not passive—the effects, when the duty is cultivated largely, are beyond all the sublimity of the stoical philosophy—they add to the magnanimity, of fortitude & constancy of the philosopher, the glowing tenderness of sympathy and the irresistable grace of humility. Where can this duty be most effectually culti novated? In solitude, no one has a hermit’s. The soul that God dwels in can aspire in love to the sympathise with Angels handwriting it visits the happy and great of all ages & nations and HM2b GTF1,SIXcontinued BP18 triumps in their aggrandisement—it descends to Caverns of and weeps over over evey every form of human woe! It’s leading ehandwriting is active zeal in ameliorating human misery by habits of intercession —it would lose sight of the bonds w’h which at once connect it with God & man! No! these tho’ts thoughts by often passing the mind can never lose their effect. They are not speculative—they are vital exercises—where the heart feels. And here perhaps I find the distinction between the growth of virtue in solitude & sociity. In the latter habits, externally, increase with more facility. Innocence is more easily preserved in solitude. But it requires more strenght & vertue to increase, in solitude, the virtues which have no assistance from external acts. Habit may carry it’s possessor along, in frequent cases, somewhat like a ma- nochine. Clearer virtues demand imply taste, discrimination and the knowledge of the truth of them.

1804-11~-2222. I cannot but rejoice ( tho’ though the great might ridecule) at a whole day begun so early and so un- no remittingly active, devout & happy. True, I have not read all, the needle, the flat iron the porridge pot have been plied with success. I cannot but compare these serene hours of ardent book, pen &c to somthing like what I shall feel in a world all activity & sucess. I am studying the history of my Saviour! Oh may I imbibe his spirit, feel an ambition to pursue his path and aim at possesing his glory! I have from unfortunate circumstances been erroneous in my ideas of age. It does not nessesarily deface the beauty of the mind. I tremble! Does it not weaken— Old age has no terror else. The soul is as alive to what it deems injurious or beneficial as ever. I must enter into the nature & possibilietes of this soul more and I shall cease to estimate the decay of the body— I shall pursue with more zeal it’s strenght & ornament. My breath shortens with .

1805-11~-2323. Morn. We are not certain from the testimony of handwritingce or our reason that we shall have scope for knowledge HM1 GTF1,SX BP19 handwriting e, verasity patience, faith temperance & fear, in the commu no nity w’h which constitutes the socity of another life. But for love and all the aimable amiable sympathies w’h which result from a high cultivation of it, we are assured we will naturally tend to our advancement. What prini no ple of our nature can have such scope when we are surrounded with the higer higher & more perfect displays of God’s character, govt government and works. The universe is filled with a proportion altogether extensive of happy beings; and those benevolent affections of the heart, which delight in happiness that it has no way been influential towards, w’h which are the purest & most exallted, will then have the most ellim no itable progress. Yet we know not of what advantage the other virtues will be even in a perfect society. Here they are indispensible, by the will of God and the pissent present nature of man. Besides, the vir notues are connected—no one can bear, can practice charity whose own passions have not been subjugated.

Night. I attended a funeral— performed the social duties I owed to some of my acquanitarce acquaintance in walking to the grave. With pleasure I intirely forgot myself in heightening the poor existence of others. I need comfort this eve. this tenia swells me I believe. I have it I have read open’d to a scripture. No power short of God himself shall dissuade me from this. As a truth existing in the nature of things it is fast as fate. God exists by the nessesity of his nature! We adore but with mute reason & reverence. We adore with every faculty of our mind that in Him are is the gov government of every agent in nature, matter and mind. Nesissity exists to us but we rejoice it rea ches sons not the operations of the infinite Mind but in connection with the ever no lasting & immutable attributes which belong to his nature. We HM1b GTF1,SXcontinued BP20 rejoice that possesing an emanation from Him, we reason that truth is grafted on our demonstration; we learn that God can not commit contradictions, that there are things w’h which he can not do. This nesisity we admit.

1805-11~-2424. sab sabbath . eve. The social inter- nocourse of loving smiling and asking my few neighbours how they do is indisputably a duty. It is a pleasure of late! The heart never is so sensible of the love of God as when it communicates the least pleasur to others. Day not devout & ardent tho though pleasant. Daniel writes me to go to Concord to Thansgiving. My poor Aunt was so clamorous that tho’ though I lost not my temper yet I might have done better how much better I wont say. No. I dont in notend, I dont wish to go. I expect like the tow two last a holy fro- nolick. Circumstances so the reverse; and a wish to oblige three old persons will give me the glee of virtue.

indent(1) But to the test, I do not advance in promotion in that king- nodom w’h which is not in this world. Perhaps my desires to add to the justice charity & truth w’h which compose it’s claims in this world will all evaporate in passive impressions. I should set som nothing new before me every day—some object in a new light— some sacrifice some offering—! Heavens, I tremble. God most mercifull my claims are to on thee written in the blood of thy Son! I bow with unshaken constancy to thy ordinations. Place me here & hereafter just where thou pleaset pleasest —only I urge t T hee I cannot let Thee go without grace to perform my the part Thou assignest me.

1804-11~-2525 Morn. The very hour after I injured the feelings of the aged tho’ though preserved temper yet I sinned against God; considering my priviledges, the least impatience, the least inter noference on my own present acc account the least justification of what appeared to others dark should be avoided, as it gave pain In future I will given ten points to gain my darling #gthopes

From the age of two, MME lived in Malden, Massachusetts with her widowed grandmother Mary Moody Emerson. After her grandmother died, MME continued in Malden with her aunt Ruth Emerson, Ruth’s first husband, Nathan Sargent, and MME’s aunt Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, considered “ ‘insane’ by the early 1780s.” In 1791, MME moved to Newburyport, Massachusetts to live with her sister Hannah Emerson Farnham; after two years she moved to Concord to live with her mother, Phebe Bliss Emerson Ripley; and in 1802, she returned to Malden to live again with Ruth Emerson and Ruth’s second husband, Samuel Waite, until 1808, the year Ruth Emerson died; Rebecca married Waite after Ruth’s death Simmons_SL174 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit xxx-xxxi, vii-x, 4 . MME occasionally bestowed or dedicated her Almanacks to her nieces and nephews.

MME may refer to Psalm 116:12: “What shall I render unto the LORD for all his benefits toward me?”

MME alludes to Psalm 137:5: “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem: let my right hand forget her cunning.”

MME alludes to Psalm 102:26: “They shall perish, but thou shalt endure, yea all of them shall wax old like a garment: as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed.”

According to Phyllis Cole, when MME lived in Malden for a second time (1802–1808), she “had purchased a pew in Aaron Green’s meetinghouse and, along with Ruth, attended church there.” Green was a “Harvard-trained” minister whom MME likely refers to as “poor” in another Almanack entry from 1804: “I could not be reverent tonight with poor Mr. Green ’s preaching.” Other possibilities for the “poor Preacher” in this reference include Nehemiah Coye and Joel Wicker of the Methodist Needham Circuit in 1804 ( Cole_MME32 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit 102 ; Bruce_Directory17 Directory of the City of Malden . . . Bruce, mDirectory Bruce Charles Emerson C. W. Calkins Boston 1882 cit 15, 155 ; Malden_Historical_Methodist_Beginnings83 Methodist Beginnings in Malden Mann Charles Edward Publication The Committee on Register of the Malden Historical Society aMethodist Beginnings page30-64 Frank S. Whitten Lynn 1916 vol4 pp306430–64 cit 45 ).

MME refers to Robert Fellowes’s A Picture of Christian Philosophy, in which he states: “The restless longing after immortality, which seems a cheering sensation, peculiar to the breast of man, is by no means a proof that such a state awaits us. For we are so organised, and placed in such circumstances, that we could not well pass through life, without this sentiment being excited in us. Hence the untutored savage usually feels it, in as much, if not more vigour than the civilized philosopher” Fellowes_Picture56 Picture of Christian Philosophy Fellowes, mPicture Fellowes Robert #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology #genreSpecific#philosophy John White London 1803 cit 252–55 . MME characterizes as “errors” Fellowes’s deism and his belief in the Christian’s ability to live in the “gay world” without being stained by it.

Annotation in progress.

MME quotes Robert Fellowes, A Picture of Christian Philosophy: “We know but little of the general laws which regulate the course of the natural world; and we know still less of those moral laws which regard the conduct of intelligent beings, and the relations which may exist between them and the maker of all things … A moral government is not incompatible with general laws; for if we allow that those laws were originally fixed by a moral governor, we must allow that they were, from the beginning, adapted to moral purposes. Those parts, therefore, in a moral system, which appear to us deviations from what we call the general laws of nature and ways of Providence, may be, in fact, only part of them, though the sight is too dim to see their connexion. These thoughts easily reconcile the notion of prescience, and an over-ruling Providence; for they are, in fact, the same thing” Fellowes_Picture56 Picture of Christian Philosophy Fellowes, mPicture Fellowes Robert #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology #genreSpecific#philosophy John White London 1803 cit 263–64 .

MME quotes Robert Fellowes, A Picture of Christian Philosophy: “In viewing the operations of the Deity we are on all sides surrounded with infinity; an infinity of forms, of combinations, of magnitudes, of space, of time … The final object of knowledge is, in my opinion, to give us more perfect notions of the supreme Being, and to make us more reciprocally useful to each other. The degree, in which we can be useful to our fellow-creatures, depends in great measure in the degree according to which we can estimate rightly the powers of nature, and ascertain how the supreme Being adapts the train of causation to the end to be produced. The farther advances which we make to the source of all intelligence, to the Divinity himself, the more reason we shall have to admire his perfections, and to reverence his power. Admiration must generate, as far as human frailty will admit, the desire of imitation, and serious impressions of religious veneration must give life to a sentiment of universal love and charity” Fellowes_Picture56 Picture of Christian Philosophy Fellowes, mPicture Fellowes Robert #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology #genreSpecific#philosophy John White London 1803 cit 259–60 .

MME alludes to 1 Corinthians 13:6–7, 13: “Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. … And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.”

MME alludes to Romans 8:28: “And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.”

MME may allude to Jeremiah 9:23–24: “Thus saith the lord, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches: But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the lord which exercise lovingkindness, judgment, and righteousness, in the earth: for in these things I delight, saith the LORD.” She may also allude to Colossians 1:9–11: “For this cause we also, since the day we heard it, do not cease to pray for you, and to desire that ye might be filled with the knowledge of his will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; That ye might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; Strengthened with all might, according to his glorious power, unto all patience and longsuffering with joyfulness.”

MME likely refers to Reverend Aaron Green. Rejecting Calvinism and favoring rationalism, Green was known for a theology based on “liberal doctrines” Cole_MME32 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit 102 .

William Shakespeare’s tragedy of Othello centers on an allegedly adulterous wife and was first published in 1622 Holland_Shakespeare72 Shakespeare, William (1564–1616) Holland Peter Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Holland, aShakespeare http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/25200 Oxford University Press 2004- cit .

The extensive letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, first published in 1483 in Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, often discussed political questions in a persuasive manner comparable to his formal orations. In them, Cicero mentioned Pliny the Younger, or Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus. John Aikin’s Letters from a Father to His Son on Various Topics Relative to Literature and the Conduct of Life (1793) contains a section on the character of Cicero and Pliny.

Because MME masks the name of the author of her reading, she may be reviewing previous correspondence from friends or family, such as her sister Rebecca Emerson Haskins, brother-in-law Robert Haskins, sister-in-law Ruth Haskins, acquaintance Hannah Adams, or sister Hannah Emerson Farnham. In Newburyport, around 1805 and 1806, MME met the “budding author” Hannah Farnham Sawyer, of whom she said, “I love & dislike—approve & shun” the Sawyer sisters Cole_MME32 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit 117 .

MME likely refers to the departure of a female houseworker.

Comparing Christians praying to children asserting their desires to their parents or subjects professing their wants to their princes, William Sherlock considers “God as changeable as Man”: “Nor is it any Reproach to the divine Nature and Providence to say, that God is moved by our Prayers and Intreaties to do for us that which otherwise he would not have done; for it neither unbecomes God nor Men to be moved by Reason” Sherlock_Discourse173 Discourse Concerning the Divine Providence Sherlock, mDiscourse Sherlock William #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology Gilbert Martin and Sons Edinburgh 1776 cit 262–64 . MME paraphrases the assertions of Joseph Butler, whose writings about the challenges to Christianity in the face of the traditions of faith were so influential they were taught at Harvard College. In The Analogy of Religion, Butler contends: “Now in the present state, all which we enjoy, and a great part of what we suffer, is put in our own power. For pleasure and pain are the consequences of our actions, and we are endued by the Author of our nature with capacities of foreseeing these consequences” Butler_Analogy21 Analogy of Religion . . . Butler, mAnalogy Butler Joseph #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology Manning and Loring Boston 1793 cit 87 .

Rather than returning from a visit to an actual man whose initials are “W. S.,” MME perhaps indicates that she’s newly “returned from” reading and continues to read more of William Sherlock, whose Discourse Concerning the Divine Providence she has been citing in these Almanack pages.

MME likely alludes to either Romans 8:16: “The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God” or 1 John 5:8: “And there are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one.”

MME alludes to Acts 3:21: “Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.”

MME refers to Joseph Butler’s Analogy of Religion (1793) and to the Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, which she perhaps read in a recently published London edition.

As described in other Annotations in this Almanack, MME could be referring to several local ministers, whose churches she may have attended: Aaron Green, William Farnham, Lincoln Ripley, Samuel Stillman, J. S. Buckminster, Thomas Baldwin, David Osgood, Joseph McKean, Nehemiah Coye, Joel Wicker, and Henry Pottle.

MME may allude to the first portion of Isaiah 5:4: “What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it?”

MME alludes to Proverbs 26:11: “As a dog returneth to his vomit, so a fool returneth to his folly.”

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MME quotes from Joseph Butler who in his Analogy of Religion writes that “all reasonable men know certainly, that there cannot, in reality, be any such thing as chance: and conclude, that the things which have this appearance are the result of general laws, and may be reduced into them. It has then but an exceeding little way, and in but a very few respects, that we can trace up the natural course of things before us to general laws” Butler_Analogy21 Analogy of Religion . . . Butler, mAnalogy Butler Joseph #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology Manning and Loring Boston 1793 cit 236 .

Between 1804 and 1805 Emerson and Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck published seven letters—as “Constance” and “Cornelia,” respectively—in the Monthly Anthology, a periodical edited by Emerson’s brother William. See Van Schalkwyck’s first essay, published four months before Emerson composed this Almanack entry, for a similar discussion of the benefits of informed social discourse in the afterlife. Like Emerson, Van Schalkwyck supports her commentary by selectively quoting John 14:2: “In my Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you” Cornelia_July_180436 To Constance White Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck Monthly Anthology Cornelia, aJuly 1804 page393-95 1804 July vol1 issue9 pp393395393–95 cit 394–395 .

MME alludes to Hebrews 3:1: “Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession Christ Jesus,” and to Hebrews 4:15, “For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.”

MME alludes to Isaiah 65:24: “And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are yet speaking, I will hear.”

MME may allude to Matthew 11:28: “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.”

MME alludes to Hebrews 2:17: “Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.”

In 1804 and/or 1805, MME travelled between Malden, Concord, Boston, and Newburyport, during which visits with family she likely saw her brother William Emerson, then the minister at Boston’s First Church. It is also possible that MME visited (and thus walked) with her half brothers, Samuel Ripley or Daniel Ripley, both of whom attended Harvard College at this time Simmons_SL174 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit 4 .

MME alludes to Matthew 6:24: “No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.”

MME may allude to John 5:44: “How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only?”

The Great Awakening (1720s–1740s), or Revivalism, was characterized by “the widespread influence of a pietist stress on religion of the heart,” spawning many literary and theological comparisons of the heart as a seat of biblical ideas such as affection, faith, will, soul, virtue, devotion, life, prayer, or tenderness. Theologian Jonathan Edwards relates the heart specifically to holiness in Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New-England: “All will allow that true Holiness has its Seat chiefly in the Heart; not the Head” ( Blumhofer_Revivalism11 Revivalism Blumhofer Edith L. Boyer Paul S. Oxford Companion to United States History Blumhofer, aRevivalism http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195082098.001.0001/acref-9780195082098-e-1314 Oxford University Press 2004 cit ; Edwards_Thoughts45 Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New-England . . . Edwards, mThoughts Edwards Jonathan #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology Joseph Charless Lexington, KY 1742 cit 10 ).

MME met close friend and fellow literary coterie member Mary Van Schalkwyck through half sister Sarah Ripley. By 1804, MME and Van Schalkwyck were publishing letters under the pseudonyms Constance (MME) and Cornelia (Van Schalkwyck) in Monthly Anthology. “Mrs. T” may be MME’s friend Rebecca Kettell Thoreau, also of Concord. Her husband, John Thoreau, died in 1801, and she likely stayed in their Concord home to care for her eight stepchildren. Rebecca and John Thoreau are the paternal grandparents of author Henry David Thoreau ( Cole_MME32 Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism Cole, mMary Moody Emerson Cole Phyllis Oxford University Press New York 1998 cit 94 ; Dwight_Memorials41 Memorials of Mary Wilder White: A Century Ago in New England Dwight, mMemorials Dwight Elizabeth Amelia Tileston Mary Wilder Everett Press Company Boston 1903 cit 60, 97, 100 ; Simmons_SL174 Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson Simmons, mSelected Letters Emerson Mary Moody Simmons Nancy Craig University of Georgia Press Athens 1993 cit 33 ).

Annotation in progress.

The afflictions of which MME complains are tinea infection (also called edema)—a burning red rash that can cause itching and swelling such as tapeworm or ringworm—and dropsy, which usually causes swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet due to fluid buildup in the body’s tissues. U.S._National_Library_Tinea197 Tinea Infections Medicine U.S. National Library of MedlinePlus aTinea Infections http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tineainfections.html cit .

MME may allude to Matthew 10:29: “Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.”

MME may allude to Dugald Stewart’s “Dissertation First: Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy” (1800), in which he details the philosophy explored by John Locke, René Descartes, and George Berkeley that exposes the difference between mind and matter. Referring to Malebranche’s doctrine of occasional causes, Stewart observes, “The chief objection to the doctrine of occasional causes is, that it presumes to decide upon a question of which human reason is altogether incompetent to judge;—our ignorance of the mode in which matter acts upon mind, or mind upon matter, furnishing not the shadow of a proof that the one may not act directly and immediately on the other, in some way incomprehensible by our faculties” Stewart_Works183 Stewart, mWorks Stewart Dugald Hilliard and Brown Cambridge 1829 7 vols. Works of Dugald Stewart cit 4:237–38 .

MME alludes to Joseph Butler’s Analogy of Religion, in which he states, “And from these two observations together; that practical habits are formed and strengthened by repeated acts, and that passive impressions grow weaker by being repeated upon us; it must follow, that active habits may be gradually forming and strengthening, by a course of acting upon such and such motives and excitements, whilst these motives and excitements themselves are, by proportional degrees, growing less sensible, i.e. are continually less and less sensibly felt, even as the active habits strengthen.” Butler continues, “it must always be remembered, that real endeavors to enforce good impressions upon ourselves, are a species of virtuous action … when the exercise of the virtuous principle is more continued, oftener repeated, and more intense; as it must be in circumstances of danger, temptation, and difficulty, of any kind and in any degree; this tendency is increased proportionately, and a more confirmed habit is the consequence” Butler_Analogy21 Analogy of Religion . . . Butler, mAnalogy Butler Joseph #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology Manning and Loring Boston 1793 cit 136, 137, 150 .

MME may allude to one of many biblical verses that mention “hunger & thirst” for spiritual succor, including, for example, Matthew 5:6: “Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled,” and John 6:35: “And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.”

Research in the vital records of Malden, Massachusetts suggests that MME may have attended several funerals at this time.

MME alludes to Song of Solomon 2:16: “My beloved is mine, and I am his: he feedeth among the lilies.”

MME may refer generally to current assessments of the religious and philosophical beliefs of classical Greek and Roman writers, as expressed in several works published around the time of this Almanack’s composition. As expressed by “The Theologist”: “In the most polished ages of heathen antiquity there were only a few individuals to whom the divine unity and perfections were known… Among the ancient legislators, so extensive was the conviction of necessity of a divine sanction of their laws, that they always pretended to derive them from the gods. … The heathen nations all boasted of their revelations; but none of them ever pretended to possess a regular and connected dispensation of the divine will. Their whole systems of religion being fabrications, and involved in mystery, any deceptions might be practised on the people, who were kept in the most profound ignorance; and it is difficult to conceive by what artiface such impious absurdities, as were practised under the name of religious rights, should ever have been imposed on mankind” Theologist_Advantages186 No. II: The Advantages of a Revelation Theologist The Monthly Anthology and Boston Review Theologist, aAdvantages page627-31 #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology 1 Dec 1804 vol1 issue14 pp627631627–31 cit 628, 629–30 . MME may also have in mind the first article in this series, published two months earlier, in which “The Theologist” had argued that the beliefs “in inferiour gods” and skepticism about “the immortality of the soul” “received by the wisest of heathen philosophers, were inconsistent and contradictory” Theologist_Necessity187 No. I: The Necessity of a Revelation Theologist The Monthly Anthology and Boston Review Theologist, aNecessity page537-39 #genreBroad#religious-writings #genreSpecific#theology 10 Oct 1804 vol1 issue12 pp537539537–39 cit 538 . A similar view is expressed by Jonathan Edwards in “Freedom of the Will”: “Such subjection to necessity … would truly argue an inferiority of servitude, that would be unworthy the Supreme Being; and is much more agreeable to the notion which many of the heathen had of fate, as above the gods, than that moral necessity of fitness and wisdom which has been spoken of” Edwards_Freedom43 Careful and Strict Inquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions of that Freedom of Will . . . Edwards, mFreedom Edwards Jonathan #genreBroad#philosophy #genreSpecific#philosophy Whiting, Backus & Whiting Albany, NY 1804 cit 326 . Cicero, whose letters MME is reading at this time, seems to confirm this classical understanding of the gods and fate: “But if our present fate is unalterably fixed—Ah! my dearest Terentia, if we are utterly and for ever abandoned by those gods whom you have so religiously adored, and by those men who I have so faithfully served; let me see you as soon as possible, that I may have the satisfaction of breathing out my last departing sigh in your arms” Cicero_Letters27 Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero to Several of His Friends Cicero, mLetters Cicero Marcus Tullius #genreBroad#life-writings #genreSpecific#classical #genreSpecific#letters Lackington, Allen London 1804 3 vols. cit 1:26 .

Thanksgiving fell on November 29 in 1804 and on November 28 in 1805.

MME may allude to Hebrews 3:1: “Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus,” and/or to Hebrews 4:14: “Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.”