Encoding Samples

Please feel free to choose one of these to work with, or use a text of your own.

Typed Basic Samples from Several Genres

This handout is a set of simple samples from various genre that we have typed in.

General Encoding

These are selected sample texts for use in encoding practice. They represent a range of different document types and challenges.


Early printed books

Modern manuscripts

Medieval manuscripts

Image-heavy document with some text

Specific Challenges

These samples were chosen to present particular encoding problems.

Encoding multiple witnesses

Walt Whitman's Song of Myself, 1855 (excerpt)

Walt Whitman's Song of Myself, 1891 (excerpt)

Encoding the writing and revision process

Walt Whitman's Hands Round, manuscript draft

Alternatively: Letter from Nicholas Brown to Pardon Sheldon

For those who want more of a challenge: Letter from Nicholas Brown to Esak Hopkins, 1764

Annotation and commentary

Pepys 4.317v: Private Occurrences, or, The Transactions of the four Last Years, Written in Imitation of the Old Ballad of Hey Brave Oliver, Ho Brave Oliver, etc.

Images of Whitman’s work courtesy of the Whitman Archive.