Handwriting Identification




       Probably not the same
	      pen used in .

]]><handShift new="#jflanders_blue"/>

Char]]><handShift new="#jflanders_black"/> hadn't visited the manor house since Easter, 1955, and now he remembered why.

“Hullo”, he called out as he walked up the drive, and then, as if to himself, “To be or not to be?, to walk or not to walk, hand="#sbauman_black"to talk or not to talk ... oh, hang


One of the features of the text that you may be interested in describing is the presence of different hands. Since you will probably not want to define each new hand as it appears, the TEI offers a space in the TEI header to define the different handwritings in the entire text. handNotes goes inside of the profileDesc of the teiHeader

Each handNote is given an xml:id attribute, so that you can reference the hand using a pointer wherever it occurs in the text.

The other attributes of handNote are used to describe the handwriting:

  • script is used to describe the type of handwriting or writing style, for example, cursive, secretary hand, Chancery script, etc.
  • medium describes the type of ink (or some other writing material).
  • scribeRef points to a description of the scribe. Note that, as in the example here, you can have several different handNote elements that have the same scribe!
  • scope describes the extent to which this hand is present in the manuscript. Possible values are sole, major, and minor.

Note that you can also provide a prose description of the hand as the content of handNote Alternatively, you can leave it empty.

The different scripts used in your text may not follow the structure of XML. So, for example, the writer may change pens in the middle of a word when he or she runs out of ink or loses the pen, as happens in this example. As a result, the TEI uses empty elements to mark the borders between new hands, rather than trying to encompass one piece of handwriting in a single element. In your documents, you will use the element handShift to mark the boundaries of the hands in your text. handShift uses the new attribute to signal which hand is being used. new should point to the xml:id of the handNote that you define in the TEI header.

You can also use the hand attribute on elements like add and del to indicate whose hand is adding or deleting text. This should also point to the handNote that you define in the TEI header.

Advanced Manuscript Encoding, slide 2 of 23